Nicotine use in schizophrenia: The self medication hypotheses

  title={Nicotine use in schizophrenia: The self medication hypotheses},
  author={Veena Kumari and Peggy Postma},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  • V. Kumari, P. Postma
  • Published 31 December 2005
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
Smoking is the most common disorder in a population with severe mental illness. Smoking frequency of individuals with schizophrenia is 2-4 times higher than the general population. Smoking also
Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis.
Closer examination of the literature points to the possibility that smoking is less beneficial on schizophrenic symptomology than generally assumed while clearly increasing the risk of cancer and other smoking-related diseases responsible for early mortality.
Cognitive performance and smoking in first-episode psychosis: the self-medication hypothesis
The results suggest that smoking may constitute a marker of a more severe illness and improve attention and working memory to a similarly modest extent as atypical antipsychotics and could reflect an effort to ameliorate these cognitive dysfunctions previous to treatment instauration.
Smoking, Genetics and Schizophrenia: Evidence for Self Medication.
A Phase I trial of DMXB-A, an α7* agonist, shows improvement in both P50 gating and in cognition, suggesting that further development of nicotinic cholinergic drugs is a promising direction in schizophrenia research.
Tobacco smoking and schizophrenia: re-examining the evidence
This article explores three current hypotheses that explain the higher prevalence of smoking in people diagnosed with schizophrenia and identifies certain genes that confer vulnerability for both schizophrenia and nicotine dependence.
Smoking in schizophrenia: cognitive impact of nicotine and relationship to smoking motivators
Tobacco smoking in schizophrenia: investigating the role of incentive salience
The hypothesis that the development of delusions and the incentive motivational aspects of smoking may share a common biological substrate is supported, which may offer some explanation for the elevated rates of smoking and other drug use in people with psychotic illness.
Effects of Nicotine on Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Medications: A Systematic Review
Prior to smoking cessation implementation, it is crucial to understand on the ways and reasons for schizophrenia patients to consume nicotine for self-medicate symptoms which may lead to the development of new treatments for schizophrenia and nicotine dependence.
The relationship between nicotine and psychosis
A bidirectional relationship has been proposed wherein cigarette smoking may be causally related to risk of psychosis, possibly via a shared genetic liability to smoking and psychosis.


Clozapine decreases smoking in patients with chronic schizophrenia
Increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in schizophrenic smokers compared to other smokers
Schizophrenia and nicotine use: report of a pilot smoking cessation program and review of neurobiological and clinical issues.
An evaluation of a smoking cessation program for 24 smokers with schizophrenia shows that 50 percent completed the program, 40 percent decreased use by 50 percent, and 13 percent remained abstinent for 6 months.
Nicotine dependence in schizophrenia: clinical phenomena and laboratory findings.
Clinical data suggest that smoking in schizophrenia may represent an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of the illness, and preclinical findings support a potential role of nicotine in medicating negative symptoms in particular.
Smoking, smoking withdrawal and schizophrenia: case reports and a review of the literature
Nicotine–Haloperidol Interactions and Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenics
No increased levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in smokers with schizophrenia
Smoking and therapeutic response to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia
Effects of Nicotine on Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia
The effects of nicotine in schizophrenia do not extend to all areas of cognition, and effects on attention may be severely limited by tachyphylaxis, such that decremented performance occurs in smokers, while modest effects may be achieved in nonsmokers.