Nicotine enhances responding with conditioned reinforcement

@article{Olausson2003NicotineER,
  title={Nicotine enhances responding with conditioned reinforcement},
  author={Peter Olausson and James David Jentsch and JaneR . Taylor},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2003},
  volume={171},
  pages={173-178}
}
RationaleThe mesolimbic dopamine system has been implicated in the primary reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse as well as in enhanced responding with conditioned reinforcement produced by psychomotor stimulant drugs. Despite clinical observations that nicotine self-administration (i.e. smoking) depends strongly upon conditioned reinforcement (i.e. cues support smoking behavior), little is known about whether nicotine directly affects motivational processes.ObjectiveIn these experiments, we… 

Operant responding for conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers in rats is differentially enhanced by the primary reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine

The reinforcement-enhancing effect of nicotine increases behavior controlled by both conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers; however, for less salient stimuli associative processes derived from the primary reinforcing effects of contingent nicotine may also be important.

Facilitation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats by a motivationally neutral sensory stimulus

Even a motivationally neutral sensory stimulus, lacking detectable primary or secondary reinforcing properties, can facilitate self-administration of nicotine, according to the present study.

Reinforcement enhancing effect of nicotine and its attenuation by nicotinic antagonists in rats

These results demonstrate dose dependency of the reinforcement-enhancing effect of nicotine and suggest that activation of the α4β2- but not α7-containing nAChRs may mediate this effect.

Nicotine-induced enhancement of a sensory reinforcer in adult rats: antagonist pretreatment effects

In adult male rats, the reinforcement-enhancing effect of low-dose nicotine depends on nicotinic receptor stimulation and on neurotransmission via D1/D5 dopaminergic, opioid, alpha1-adrenergic, and CB1 cannabinoid receptors.

Nicotine serves as a feature-positive modulator of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning in rats

Results are consistent with the hypothesis that nicotine can occasion appetitive Pavlovian relations via its action at central nervous system cholinergic receptors.

Acute Effects of Nicotine Amplify Accumbal Neural Responses during Nicotine-Taking Behavior and Nicotine-Paired Environmental Cues

The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1) excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2) a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAC role in nicotine- induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediate nicotine-induced enhancement of Pavlovian conditioned responding to an alcohol cue

It is suggested that nicotine acts via β2*, but not α7, nAChRs to amplify Pavlovian conditioned responding to an alcohol cue, contributing to a growing literature that identifies nA ChRs as potential targets for pharmacological treatment of co-morbid alcohol and tobacco use disorders.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 55 REFERENCES

Enhanced responding for conditioned reward produced by intra-accumbens amphetamine is potentiated after cocaine sensitization

Findings show that prior exposures to cocaine results in changes that potentiate the ability of intra-NAc amphetamine to enhance CR, and repeated stimulant drug use may induce long-term neuronal adaptations that result in increased sensitivity to the behavioral, or incentive motivational, effects of stimulant drugs.

Repeated Nicotine Exposure Enhances Reward-Related Learning in the Rat

All nicotine treatment schedules increased Pavlovian discriminative approach behavior and, thus, prior repeated exposure to nicotine, repeated postsession nicotine injections, or both, facilitated reward-related learning.

Mesoaccumbens dopamine-opiate interactions in the control over behaviour by a conditioned reinforcer

The dopamine-dependent locomotor-stimulant properties of intra-VTA infusions of opiates are associated with impaired conditioned reinforcer efficacy, and repeated stimulation of the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway may compromise the dopamine-independence of the opiate system within the nucleus accumbens.

Enhanced behavioural control by conditioned reinforcers following microinjections of d-amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens

The results suggest that the nucleus accumbens may play an important role in ind-amphetamine's enhanced control over behaviour exerted by conditioned reinforcers.

Dopamine and conditioned reinforcement

It has been shown that infusion of certain neuropeptides into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) results in increased motor activity and enhanced dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. In the

Limbic-striatal interactions in reward-related processes

Cue dependency of nicotine self-administration and smoking

Dissociation in Effects of Lesions of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell on Appetitive Pavlovian Approach Behavior and the Potentiation of Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activity byd-Amphetamine

Results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS–US associations.
...