Nicotine arms race: JUUL and the high-nicotine product market

@article{Jackler2019NicotineAR,
  title={Nicotine arms race: JUUL and the high-nicotine product market},
  author={R. Jackler and Divya Ramamurthi},
  journal={Tobacco Control},
  year={2019},
  volume={28},
  pages={623 - 628}
}
Objective Until recently, purveyors of vaping products marketed e-liquids in the 1%–3% range of nicotine concentration with those at 3% described as ‘super high’ intended for two packs/day smokers. The goal of this study is to evaluate the degree to which JUUL, with its 5% nicotine and 75% US market share, has spurred other e-liquid vendors to raise the nicotine levels of their products. Methods Online search to identify brands offering e-liquid in exceptionally high nicotine concentration (≥5… Expand
When Less is More: Vaping Low-Nicotine vs. High-Nicotine E-Liquid is Compensated by Increased Wattage and Higher Liquid Consumption
TLDR
Among vapers, different vaping typologies may exist, depending on subcultural and/or geographic parameters, and the Belgian vapers may have a greater potential to expose themselves to larger quantities of harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) released during vaping. Expand
Trends in e-cigarette brands, devices and the nicotine profile of products used by youth in England, Canada and the USA: 2017–2019
TLDR
Self-reported use of products with higher nicotine concentration was associated with significantly greater frequency of vaping, urges to vape and perceived vaping addiction, including JUUL and other higher-nicotine brands. Expand
E-cigarettes: How can they help smokers quit without addicting a new generation?
TLDR
ENDS manufacturers may have to demonstrate that marketing of their products would help reduce youth use of ENDS and lessen the epidemic, while still assuring adult smokers have access to products that encourage discontinuing combusted product use. Expand
Patterns of nicotine concentrations in electronic cigarettes sold in the United States, 2013-2018.
TLDR
E-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations comprise a substantial and increasing portion of U.S. e-cigarettes sales, and may influence patterns of e-cigarette use, including harms from e- cigarette initiation among youth and potential health benefits for adult smokers switching completely to e- cigarettes. Expand
Effect of Exposure to e-Cigarettes With Salt vs Free-Base Nicotine on the Appeal and Sensory Experience of Vaping: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Importance Alkaline free-base nicotine is bitter and a respiratory irritant. High-nicotine electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products contain acid additives that change nicotine from a free-base toExpand
What is the nicotine delivery profile of electronic cigarettes?
TLDR
This review discusses nicotine content of e-cigarettes, effectiveness of nicotine aerosolization by devices, delivery of nicotine to users, and user and device characteristics that impact each of these and the potential to deliver equal or more nicotine compared to a tobacco cigarette. Expand
Vaping Instead of Cigarette Smoking: A Panacea or Just Another form of Cardiovascular Risk?
TLDR
Although ECs may once have held promise as part of a harm reduction strategy in people who smoke lethal TCs, this role has been offset, largely by the unconscionable marketing to youth, in addition to a failure of regulation and enforcement, leading to significant harm, especially in never-smokers who use them. Expand
A comparison of the electrical characteristics, liquid composition, and toxicant emissions of JUUL USA and JUUL UK e-cigarettes
TLDR
JUUL’s UK product was engineered to deliver greater electrical power and boost liquid vaporization such that the net nicotine delivery rate was similar to the US version, and electrical characteristics, liquid composition, and aerosol emissions of JUUL devices procured in the USA and the UK were compared. Expand
Toxicology of flavoring- and cannabis-containing e-liquids used in electronic delivery systems.
TLDR
More research is needed with regard to e-cigarettes (generation, power settings, etc.), e-liquids (composition, bulk or vaped form), modeled systems (cell type, culture type, and dosimetry metrics), biological monitoring, secondhand exposures and contact with residues that contain nicotine and flavorings, and causative agents and mechanisms of EVALI toxicity. Expand
Adolescents and young adults have difficulty understanding nicotine concentration labels on vaping products presented as mg/ml and percent nicotine.
TLDR
This study demonstrates that adolescents and young adults have difficulty understanding nicotine concentrations labeled using the two most common metrics (mg/ml and percent nicotine), raising concerns about inadvertent exposure to high nicotine levels and suggesting that a more intuitive labeling approach is needed. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes.
TLDR
In ECs, which vaporize nicotine effectively, the amount inhaled from 15 puffs is lower compared with smoking a conventional cigarette, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization. Expand
Nicotine levels in electronic cigarette refill solutions: A comparative analysis of products from the U.S., Korea, and Poland.
TLDR
A single product labelled as 'pure nicotine' which contained significantly higher concentration of the drug, increasing the risk of accidental poisoning is identified, revealing the need for quality standards of these new nicotine containing products. Expand
E-cigarette liquids: Constancy of content across batches and accuracy of labeling.
TLDR
The nicotine content of these e-liquids matched the labels on the bottles, and was relatively constant across production batches, as was the pH. Expand
Nicotine delivery to users from cigarettes and from different types of e-cigarettes
TLDR
EC brands the authors tested do not deliver nicotine as efficiently as cigarettes, but newer EC products deliver nicotine more efficiently than cig-a-like brands. Expand
Recognition, use and perceptions of JUUL among youth and young adults
TLDR
A novel ENDS product, JUUL, was developed by PAX Labs and represents one of the latest efforts to innovate within the ENDS market, providing a nicotine concentration comparable with a traditional cigarette and delivers nicotine 1.25–2.7 times faster than competing ENDS. Expand
A comparison of the electrical characteristics, liquid composition, and toxicant emissions of JUUL USA and JUUL UK e-cigarettes
TLDR
JUUL’s UK product was engineered to deliver greater electrical power and boost liquid vaporization such that the net nicotine delivery rate was similar to the US version, and electrical characteristics, liquid composition, and aerosol emissions of JUUL devices procured in the USA and the UK were compared. Expand
High exposure to nicotine among adolescents who use Juul and other vape pod systems (‘pods’)
TLDR
The use of pods among adolescents, surveyed patients 12–21 years seen at three Stony Brook Children’s Hospital outpatient clinics from April 2017 to April 2018, found no data on nicotine exposure among youth who use pod systems. Expand
Brand differences of free-base nicotine delivery in cigarette smoke: the view of the tobacco industry documents
TLDR
Public health community would benefit from additional research to assess directly the delivery of free-base nicotine in cigarette smoke across brands, especially for products that have been promoted, either explicitly or implicitly, as “harm reducing”. Expand
Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes.
TLDR
Although the average maximum plasma nicotine concentration in experienced e-cigarette users appears to be generally lower than what has been reported from tobacco cigarette use, the shape of the pharmacokinetic curve is similar, suggesting addictive potential. Expand
JUUL and other stealth vaporisers: hiding the habit from parents and teachers
TLDR
The vaping industry has demonstrated much ingenuity in devising discreet vaporisers and de-emphasising exhaled vapour plumes and their aroma, with JUUL accounting for 70.5% of sales (July 2018). Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...