Differentiation between Clostridium acidiurici and Clostridium cylindrosporum on the basis of specific metal requirements for formate dehydrogenase formation
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-dependent formate dehydrogenase in Clostridium thermoaceticum used, in addition to its natural electron acceptor, methyl and benzyl viologen. The enzyme was purified to a specific activity of 34 (micromoles per minute per milligram of protein) with NADP as electron acceptor. Disc gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme yielded two major and two minor protein bands, and during centrifugation in sucrose gradients two components of apparent molecular weights of 270,000 and 320,000 were obtained, both having formate dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme preparation catalyzed the reduction of riboflavine 5'-phosphate flavine adenine dinucleotide and methyl viologen by using reduced NADP as a source of electrons. It also had reduced NADP oxidase activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by cyanide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It was also inhibited by hypophosphite, an inhibition that was reversed by formate. Sulfite inhibited the activity with NADP but not with methyl viologen as acceptor. The apparent K(m) at 55 C and pH 7.5 for formate was 2.27 x 10(-4) M with NADP and 0.83 x 10(-4) with methyl viologen as acceptor. The apparent K(m) for NADP was 1.09 x 10(-4) M and for methyl viologen was 2.35 x 10(-3) M. NADP showed substrate inhibition at 5 x 10(-3) M and higher concentrations. With NADP as electron acceptor, the enzyme had a broad pH optimum between 7 and 9.5. The apparent temperature optimum was 85 C. In the absence of substrates, the enzyme was stable at 70 C but was rapidly inactivated at temperatures above 73 C. The enzyme was very sensitive to oxygen but was stabilized by thiol-iron complexes and formate.