Nickel allergy in relation to piercing and orthodontic appliances – a population study

@article{Fors2012NickelAI,
  title={Nickel allergy in relation to piercing and orthodontic appliances – a population study},
  author={Ronny Fors and Berndt Stenberg and Hans Stenlund and Maurits Persson},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={2012},
  volume={67}
}
Background. Studies have shown conflicting results on the association between nickel exposure from orthodontic appliances and nickel sensitization. 
Cobalt release and complications resulting from the use of dental prostheses
Cobalt release from dental prostheses has been shown to elicit allergic reactions in cobalt‐allergic patients. It is therefore important to investigate whether these prostheses are possible sourcesExpand
Nickel hypersensitivity and orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
TLDR
Orthodontic treatment seems to have a protective role against nickel hypersensitivity, especially when it precedes piercings, and is associated with a lower risk of hypersensitivity when confounding from factors such as sex and Piercings was taken into account. Expand
Low patch test reactivity to nickel in unselected adolescents tested repeatedly with nickel in infancy
It is questionable how repeated patch tests with nickel sulfate in infancy affect nickel patch test reactivity at a later age.
Body Piercing and Metal Allergic Contact Sensitivity: North American Contact Dermatitis Group Data From 2007 to 2010
TLDR
Piercing was statistically associated with sensitivity to nickel, dose dependent and stronger in males, and cobalt sensitivity was not associated with piercing when adjusted for nickel. Expand
Exposure to nickel and palladium from dental appliances
The application of a dental material into the oral cavity is not free of biological implications, as deterioration of the material will undoubtedly occur. The adverse health effects of palladium andExpand
Risk assessment for nickel contact allergy
TLDR
The adjusted factors found to associate with NiCA were female sex, young age, occupation with long periods of exposure to metal, seafood and canned food consumption. Expand
Nickel and chromium levels in the saliva of a Saudi sample treated with fixed orthodontic appliances.
TLDR
Fixed orthodontic appliances resulted in a non-toxic increase in salivary levels of Ni, but no change in Cr levels, and duration of orthodentic treatment did not affect Ni and Cr levels in the saliva. Expand
Salivary levels of nickel, chromium, iron, and copper in patients treated with metal or esthetic fixed orthodontic appliances: A retrospective cohort study.
TLDR
Salivary levels of nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) released from metal and esthetic fixed orthodontic appliances were measured to show that Ni and Cr concentrations were significantly influenced by the type of appliance used. Expand
Hypersensitivity to Dental Alloys
TLDR
There is a strong relation between exposure to dental alloys and ACD; thus, dental crowns seem to play a key role; however, a relationship between hypersensitivity to metals and objective oral abnormalities is less clear. Expand
Nickel allergy and allergic contact dermatitis: A clinical review of immunology, epidemiology, exposure, and treatment
TLDR
This clinical review provides an updated overview of the epidemiology, exposure sources, methods for exposure quantification, skin deposition and penetration, immunology, diagnosis, thresholds for sensitization and elicitation, clinical pictures, prevention, and treatment of nickel allergy. Expand
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References

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Nickel sensitization in orthodontically treated and non‐treated female adolescents
TLDR
The importance of the nickel exposure from fixed orthodontic appliances is under continuous discussion and the need to monitor this exposure for the long-term health of patients with nickel-capped teeth is under discussion. Expand
Nickel allergy and orthodontic treatment
TLDR
Tolerance induction to prevent development of nickel allergy has been suggested with permanent dental braces but which effect orthodontic treatments had had on the development of Nickel allergy in university students is investigated. Expand
Nickel allergy – prevalence in a population of Swedish youths from patch test and questionnaire data
TLDR
The prevalence of body piercing and orthodontic treatment has increased during recent decades and changes in lifestyle may influence the occurrence of nickel allergy. Expand
Nickel allergy in relationship to previous oral and cutaneous nickel contact.
TLDR
It is found that 77 (31.2%) of 247 patients with pierced ears were allergic to nickel compared to only three (6.4%) patients without pierced ears, which confirms earlier suggestions that nickel allergy (as assessed by patch testing) is promoted by ear piercing. Expand
Orthodontic appliances in relation to nickel hypersensitivity. A review.
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TLDR
A review of the literature concerning nickel hypersensitivity in relation to orthodontic appliances has shown that the risk is very low for patients who are not nickel hypersensitive at the start of the treatment. Expand
Nickel and cobalt hypersensitivity reaction before and after orthodontic therapy in children.
TLDR
Orthodontic treatment with conventional stainless steel alloys does not appear to have an allergenic effect on the gingival and oral health of the patient and suggests orthodontics therapy with conventional Stainless steel appliances does not initiate or aggravate a nickel hypersensitivity reaction. Expand
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TLDR
Allergic contact dermatitis is equally as likely in infancy as in adulthood, and represents 20% of all cases of dermatitis in children, and its true prevalence and incidence are unknown. Expand
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TLDR
Investigating the frequency of nickel hypersensitivity in adolescents in relation to sex, onset, duration and type of orthodontic treatment, and the age at which ears were pierced suggests that treatment with nickel-containing metallic orthodentic appliances before sensitization to nickel (ear piercing) may have reduced the frequency. Expand
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TLDR
There was a positive association between nickel hypersensitivity and previous personal allergic history to metals, and orthodontic therapy with conventional stainless steel appliances does not initiate or aggravate a Nickel hypersensitivity reaction. Expand
Prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity in orthodontic patients: a meta-analysis.
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TLDR
Orthodontic treatment is not associated with an increase in the prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity unless subjects have a history of cutaneous piercing and high-validity studies are needed to produce strong evidence to further support the results of this meta-analysis. Expand
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