Spatio-temporal mutation profiles of case-matched colorectal carcinomas and their metastases reveal unique de novo mutations in metachronous lung metastases by targeted next generation sequencing
CONTEXT -Colorectal carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer death in males and females in the United States. Rectal adenocarcinoma can have distinct therapeutic and surgical management from colonic adenocarcinoma owing to its location and anatomic considerations. OBJECTIVE -To determine the oncologic driver mutations and better understand the molecular pathogenesis of rectal adenocarcinoma in relation to colon adenocarcinoma. DESIGN -Next-generation sequencing was performed on 20 cases of primary rectal adenocarcinoma with a paired lymph node or solid organ metastasis by using an amplicon-based assay of more than 2800 Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC)-identified somatic mutations. RESULTS -Next-generation sequencing data were obtained on both the primary tumor and metastasis from 16 patients. Most rectal adenocarcinoma cases demonstrated identical mutations in the primary tumor and metastasis (13 of 16, 81%). The mutations identified, listed in order of frequency, included TP53, KRAS, APC, FBXW7, GNAS, FGFR3, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, and SMAD4. CONCLUSIONS -The somatic mutations identified in our rectal adenocarcinoma cohort showed a strong correlation to those previously characterized in colonic adenocarcinoma. In addition, most rectal adenocarcinomas harbored identical somatic mutations in both the primary tumor and metastasis. These findings demonstrate evidence that rectal adenocarcinoma follows a similar molecular pathogenesis as colonic adenocarcinoma and that sampling either the primary or metastatic lesion is valid for initial evaluation of somatic mutations and selection of possible targeted therapy.