Newtonian Cosmology in Lagrangian Formulation: Foundations and Perturbation Theory

@article{Ehlers1997NewtonianCI,
  title={Newtonian Cosmology in Lagrangian Formulation: Foundations and Perturbation Theory},
  author={Juergen Ehlers and Thomas Buchert},
  journal={General Relativity and Gravitation},
  year={1997},
  volume={29},
  pages={733-764}
}
The “Newtonian” theory of spatially unbounded, self-gravitating, pressureless continua in Lagrangian form is reconsidered. Following a review of the pertinent kinematics, we present alternative formulations of the Lagrangian evolution equations and establish conditions for the equivalence of the Lagrangian and Eulerian representations. We then distinguish open models based on Euclidean space R3 from closed models based (without loss of generality) on a flat torus T3. Using a simple averaging… 
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