News on glutamate receptors in glial cells

@article{Steinhuser1996NewsOG,
  title={News on glutamate receptors in glial cells},
  author={Christian Steinh{\"a}user and Vittorio Gallo},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={1996},
  volume={19},
  pages={339-345}
}
NMDA Receptors in Glia
TLDR
The discovery of glial NMDA receptors in brain macroglia indicates the complex nature of intercellular signaling mechanisms in the brain, which involve all types of neural cells, connected through diverse types of chemical and electrical synapses.
Expression and Function of Neurotransmitter Receptors in Glial Cells of the Central Nervous System
TLDR
It is observed that glutamate, angiotensin II and ATP receptors are expressed in a highly heterogenous manner in glial cells and that they may participate in regulating the size of the glial cell population as well as in the production of trophic support relevant to brain repair.
Glutamatergic synapses on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the hippocampus
TLDR
It is reported that stimulation of excitatory axons in the hippocampus elicits inward currents in OPCs that are mediated by AMPA receptors, and electron microscopic analysis revealed that vesicle-filled axon terminals make synaptic junctions with the processes of O PCs in both the young and adult hippocampus.
On how altered glutamate homeostasis may contribute to demyelinating diseases of the CNS.
TLDR
Data presented indicates that aberrant glutamate signaling may contribute to the development of some white matter pathologies and that the tissue lesions caused by overactivation of glutamate receptors resemble those observed in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
Expression and functional analysis of glutamate receptors in glial cells.
TLDR
Qualities such as their capacity for uptake and metabolism of transmitters, buffering capacity of ions and ability to convey external signals via surface receptors to biological responses within the cells indicate an intimate crosstalk between glial cells and neurones.
Synaptic and extrasynaptic neurotransmitter receptors in glial precursors' quest for identity
TLDR
The present review integrates recent advances to shed new light on how neurotransmitter receptors may, alternatively, serve as excitable mediators of neuron‐glia and neuron‐neuroblast interactions.
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References

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NMDA-activated currents in Bergmann glial cells.
TLDR
Evidence that Bergmann glial cells from mouse cerebellar slices show intrinsic responses to NMDA is provided, implying the presence of distinct NMDA receptors on Bergmannglial cells; these glial receptors could be the substitute for complex neurone-glia interactions in the cerebellum.
Multiple conductance channels in type-2 cerebellar astrocytes activated by excitatory amino acids
TLDR
The experiments show that glial cells possess quisqualate- and kainate-receptor channels but lack receptors for NMDA, and these glutamate channels exhibit multiple conductance levels that are similar in amplitude to the neuronal glutamate channels.
Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling.
TLDR
It is reported that cultured hippocampal astrocytes can respond to glutamate with a prompt and oscillatory elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, visible through use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3.
Functional kainate-selective glutamate receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.
TLDR
It is found that early after culturing, a high percentage of rat hippocampal neurons express functional, kainate-selective glutamate receptors, which are likely to be native homomeric GluR-6 receptors.
Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and implications for brain function.
TLDR
The molecular and functional diversity of the glutamate receptors is reviewed and their implications for integrative brain function are discussed.
Activation of NMDA receptor-channels in human retinal Müller glial cells inhibits inward-rectifying potassium currents.
TLDR
Inhibition of the Müller cell KIR channels by the neurotransmitter glutamate is likely to have significant functional consequences for the retina since these ion channels are involved in K+ homeostasis, which in turn influences neuronal excitability.
Expression of NMDA 2B receptor subunit mRNA in bergmann glia
TLDR
It is suggested that Bergmann glial cells contain the molecular machinary to synthesize the NMDA receptor 2B subunit, which is most probably co‐expressed with the ubiquitous NMDAR1 subunit.
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