Recent developments in pharmacology have offered new and broader options to the anesthesiologist caring for pediatric patients. Many new drugs do not have specific indications for use in the pediatric population, but clinical studies have examined the utility and cost-effectiveness of some of these agents. Information is presented on drugs used for premedication, induction, and maintenance of anesthesia. The clinical pharmacology of several new nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, and the recent controversy with regard to the use of succinylcholine also are presented. New drugs used in topical and regional anesthesia as well as options for anti-emetic therapy are discussed.