The "new transfusion strategies" are designed to minimize exposure to allogeneic transfusion while maximizing the use of autologous red cells. While not always possible in all clinical situations, this approach appears to be the current transfusion strategy paradigm. Physician and patient concerns about the risk of transfusion therapy are driving these strategies. When combined with management of the elements of cardiopulmonary physiology responsible for cardiac output and tissue perfusion, the autologous techniques of hemodilution, cell salvage, and predeposit are reasonable strategies for achieving the desired goals of allogeneic transfusion avoidance. Of the 11 policies and interventions proposed by the Blood Management Conference6 several need to be iterated as underpinnings for these strategies. They include: 1. assessing transfusion needs on a patient case basis; 2. transfusions are to be given and effect-benefit assessed before proceeding with additional transfusion; 3. limited exposure to allogeneic blood if possible; 4. minimize perioperative blood loss ranging from surgical technique to decreasing laboratory assessments; and 5. maximize oxygen delivery physiology as a first step in improving basic oxygen delivery.