New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes.

  title={New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes.},
  author={Adrian T. Sumner and Harold J. Evans and R. A. Buckland},
  journal={Nature: New biology},
  volume={232 27},
A GIEMSA staining procedure that preferentially stains centromeric heterochromatin in mouse chromosomes has been described1. This specificity was observed when fixed preparations were treated with sodium hydroxide to denature the DNA, and then incubated in warm saline to allow annealing, in the presence of 3H-labelled single stranded satellite DNA or its complementary RNA. In this way mouse satellite DNA was located in the centromeric heterochromatin1,2. It is known to consist of highly… 

Banding in human chromosomes treated with trypsin.

Through modifications of the original methods used in the DNA hybridization work, techniques have been developed which make each chromosome identifiable and these observations were later made on human chromosomes.

Giemsa banding, quinacrine fluorescence and DNA-replication in chromosomes of cattle (Bos taurus)

Autoradiographic studies with 3H-thymidine show that the DNA at the centromeric regions starts and finishes its replication later than in the other parts of the chromosomes.

New selective Giemsa technique for human chromosomes, Cd staining

These modified Giemsa procedures all produce densely stained regions of one or both chromosome arms close to the centromere, which stain the secondary constriction of chromosome 1, 9 and 16, as well as the distal part of the Y chromosome.

Some remarks on the use of TaqI to detect highly repetitive DNA sequences in human chromosomes.

In the attempt to conclude investigation of the action of restriction endonucleases on eukaryote chromosomes, a series of experiments digesting in situ human metaphase chromosomes with AluI/TaqI followed by Giemsa staining drew some conclusions on the highly repetitive DNA composition of these regions, in terms of alphoid and classical satellite DNAs.

A new G-banding modification for metaphase chromosomes.

Improved staining techniques enable identification of all human chromosomes and it is proved that strong QM fluorescence reflects the presence of DNA having a high A-T content, although the exact nature and cause of the banding patterns still remain to be cleared.

Propidium iodide for making heterochromatin more evident in the C-banding technique

An adaptation of the commonly used technique by replacing the nonfluorescent dye, Giemsa, by a fluorescent one, propidium iodide, produces greater contrast of the heterochromatic bands in metaphase chromosomes and can be especially valuable when the organisms studied possess heterochROMatin that is pale and difficult to visualize.

Fluorescent C bands of human chromosomes with 33 258 Hoechst stain

SummaryAir-dried preparations of human metaphase chromosomes normally exhibit a Q band fluorescence pattern with 33 258 Hoechst stain while the C band regions of 1, 9, 16, and most acrocentric short

Differential chromosomal staining in Bos taurus (cattle).

The differ ential behaviour of the centromeric heterochromatin in Bos taurus suggests that the constitutive heterochromaatin is heterogeneous in its staining intensities and thus, its variable staining properties may be due to its complex structure or its composi tional heterogeneity.

Heterochromatin and giemsa banding of metaphase chromosomes in Trillium kamtschaticum pallas.

It is attempted to see whether the Giemsa positive regions are not necessarily the heterochromatin, using Trillium kamtschaticum as material in which the numbers and locations of large heterochROMatin segments have been well established18 in the large metaphase chromosomes.



Chromosomal Localization of Mouse Satellite DNA

Hybridization of radioactive nucleic acids with the DNA of cytological preparations shows that the sequences of mouse satellite DNA are located in the centromeric heterochromatin of the mouse

Recognition of ribosomal RNA sites in DNA. II. The HeLa cell system.

Analysis of the sedimentation behavior and base composition of the RNA recovered from hybrids between E. coli 16S and 238 RNA and homologous DNA has given results which suggest a regular and complete hydrogen bonding of the hybridized RNA with specific sites in DNA.

Nucleotide Sequence Repetition: A Rapidly Reassociating Fraction of Mouse DNA

The rate constant for reassociation of theMinor component, compared with those of viral and bacterial DNA's, indicates that the minor component consists of a short nucleotide sequence present in about one million copies.

Chromosomal and Nuclear Location of Mouse Satellite DNA in Individual Cells

Single strands of mouse satellite DNA were annealed to nuclei and chromosomes in mouse cells and it is suggested that there is a concentration of satellite DNA sequences close to the centromeres of the chromosomes.


  • F. RitossaS. Spiegelman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1965
* The work reported has been done under USPHS grant GM 9912. t Career Scientist, Health Research Council of the City of New York. 1 Hungerford, D., J. Morphol., 97, 497 (1955). 2Beatty, R. A.,

Properties and Composition of the Isolated Ribosomal DNA Satellite of Xenopus laevis

Isolated polycistronic ribosomal DNA of Xenopus laevis is internally heterogeneous in GC content, but contains few basic nucleotide sequences, which are integrated in the ribosomes together with DNA of high GC content.

Repeated sequences in human DNA.

Distinguishing between the Chromosomes involved in Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (Ph1) by Fluorescence

Fluorescence with quinacrine dihydrochloride has been used to identify chromosomes of the human G group.

Repeated Sequences in DNA

Hundreds of thousands of copies of DNA sequences have been incorporated into the genomes of higher organisms and used in medicine, science, and engineering.