New oral anticoagulants target specific factors in the coagulation cascade by directly inhibiting thrombin for dabigatran and Factor Xa for -xatrans. Pharmacological progresses with these anticoagulants allow the use of fixed doses without any therapeutic drug monitoring. Their pharmacokinetic specificity is the key role of the transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for all these drugs and the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 for -xabans. Dose adjustment is recommended for decreasing creatinine clearance or in case of drug-drug interaction. New oral anticoagulants are promising but their safety needs further investigations in particular populations such as elderly patients, patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or patients on polymedication.