New method for detecting antiandrogenic effects through the measurement of external genitalia in rabbits

  title={New method for detecting antiandrogenic effects through the measurement of external genitalia in rabbits},
  author={Kunifumi Inawaka and Noriyuki Kishimoto and Hashihiro Higuchi and Takayuki Okamoto and Satoshi Kawamura},
  journal={Congenital Anomalies},
The aim of the present study was to develop a quantitative evaluation method for detecting antiandrogenic activity of chemicals in rabbits that are regularly used for developmental toxicity studies. Kbl: New Zealand White rabbits (n = 8–9) were injected intramuscularly with an antiandrogen, cyproterone acetate (CA; 10 mg/kg body weight [BW]/day), on gestation days (GD) 13–24. On GD 29, live fetuses were obtained by cesarean section and sexed by examination of the internal genitalia. The… 
1 Citations
Maternal exposure to procymidone has no effects on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses in a modified developmental toxicity study.
The results suggest that PCM has no effect on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses, and species difference of developmental effects of PCM on sexual differentiation exists.


External genitalia abnormalities in male rats exposed in utero to finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor.
A series of studies was conducted to determine the developmental toxicity of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride (MK-0906) in rats, finding that the enzymatic proteins in the genital tubercle and ventral prostate may be similar.
The abnormal development of male sex organs in the rat using a pure antiandrogen and a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor during gestation.
  • J. Hib, R. Ponzio
  • Medicine, Biology
    Acta physiologica, pharmacologica et therapeutica latinoamericana : organo de la Asociacion Latinoamericana de Ciencias Fisiologicas y [de] la Asociacion Latinoamericana de Farmacologia
  • 1995
In male offspring treated 'in utero' with doses of finestaride of 2, 8 and 16 mg/Kg/day, the anogenital distance became progressively reduced, but complete abolition of prostate development never occurred, and in male offspring given finestarides concomitantly with flutamide at a dose of 6 mg/ Kg/ day, prostate differentiation was completely abolished.
External genitalia of the rat: normal development and the histogenesis of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor-induced abnormalities.
In males exposed to finasteride in utero, there was variable failure of the mesenchymal wedge to develop, causing displacement of the frenulum distally on the glans penis and the development of a cleft in the prepuce.
Effects of finasteride, a type 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, on fetal development in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
In utero sonographic findings in fetuses correlated with the gross findings at term, and studies have shown that external genital abnormalities can be produced in male monkey fetuses when exposed to a high oral dose of finasteride, whereas no abnormalities were observed in Fetuses exposed to the i.v. formulation of Finasteride during pregnancy.
Comparison of the effects of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the antiandrogen flutamide on prostate and genital differentiation: dose-response studies.
Results suggest that testosterone (T) can compensate for DHT to some degree at the level of the androgen receptor, despite increasingly higher doses of the antiandrogen flutamide.
An overview of animal toxicology studies with bicalutamide (ICI 176,334).
Bicalutamide produced a range of pharmacological effects, as well as liver enlargement with enzyme induction and dog ECG changes in preclinical toxicity studies in rodents and dogs, which were found to be relevant to human usage.
Inhibition of development of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent pigment cells in scrotal skin dermis of the rat by antiandrogen treatment during fetal growth.
Testosterone controls the melanogenic activity of epidermal melanocytes, but not that of brown dermal pigment cells, in scrotal skin of the adult rat. The effect of prenatal treatment with the
Antagonistic action of anti-androgens on the formation of a specific dihydrotestosterone-receptor protein complex in rat ventral prostate.
Estradiol-17β, diethylstilbestrol, and progesterone, but not hydrocortisone succinate, also suppressed the retention of dihydrotestosterone by prostatic cell nuclei in vitro, but to a much lesser extent than cyproterone.
Aspects of androgen-dependent events as studied by antiandrogens.