Cancer antigen 125 levels and increased risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation
Carbohydrate antigen 125 has been known as a membrane-associated mucin. It has found application as a tumor marker that may be elevated in the blood of some patients with ovarian cancer, or other benign conditions. Recently, increased serum carbohydrate antigen 125 levels have been documented in patients with heart failure. However, little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanism. It has been found that carbohydrate antigen 125 will be shed from surfaces of mesothelial cells in response to mechanical stress such as fluid overload, and inflammatory stimuli. High carbohydrate antigen 125 levels are closely related to the presence of serosal fluid and positively correlated with serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in heart failure patients. This leads to proposed hypothesis that the mechanical stress and inflammatory stimuli both initiate carbohydrate antigen 125 synthesis. This finding suggests that carbohydrate antigen 125 might be a promising biomarker to evaluate the risk stratification of heart failure and monitor the process of therapy.