New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution

  title={New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution},
  author={Isaiah Odhiambo Nengo and Paul Tafforeau and Christopher C. Gilbert and John G. Fleagle and Ellen R. Miller and Craig S. Feibel and David L. Fox and Josh Feinberg and Kelsey D. Pugh and Camille Berruyer and Sara Mana and Zachary T. Engle and Fred Spoor},
The evolutionary history of extant hominoids (humans and apes) remains poorly understood. The African fossil record during the crucial time period, the Miocene epoch, largely comprises isolated jaws and teeth, and little is known about ape cranial evolution. Here we report on the, to our knowledge, most complete fossil ape cranium yet described, recovered from the 13 million-year-old Middle Miocene site of Napudet, Kenya. The infant specimen, KNM-NP 59050, is assigned to a new species of… 
Evolution: Skull secrets of an ancient ape
The skull of an infant ape recovered from Kenya is assigned to a new species in the genus Nyanzapithecus and the evidence shows that, although the creature shares some similarities with gibbons, these resemblances are very likely convergence and the new species is a close relative of the common ancestor of extant apes.
Early anthropoid femora reveal divergent adaptive trajectories in catarrhine hind-limb evolution
The authors analyze the evolution of the proximal femur in catarrhines, including a new Aegyptopithecus fossil, and suggest that Old World monkeys and hominoids diverged from an ancestral state similar to Aegyptopsithecus.
Primitive Old World monkey from the earliest Miocene of Kenya and the evolution of cercopithecoid bilophodonty
The simple dentition and absence of bilophodonty in the Nakwai monkey indicate that the initial radiation of Old World monkeys was first characterized by a reorganization of basic molar morphology, and a reliance on cusps rather than lophs suggests frugivorous diets and perhaps hard object feeding.
Phylogenetic analysis of Middle-Late Miocene apes
New Middle Miocene Ape (Primates: Hylobatidae) from Ramnagar, India fills major gaps in the hominoid fossil record
The presence of crown hylobatid molar features in the new species indicates an adaptive shift to a more frugivorous diet during the Middle Miocene, consistent with other proposed adaptations to frugIVory during this time period as well.
Reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships of the late Miocene apes Hispanopithecus and Rudapithecus based on vestibular morphology
Compared with extant hominids, the vestibular morphology of Hispanopithecus and Rudapithecus most closely resembles that of African apes, and differs from the derived condition of orangutans, indicating that hominines are plesiomorphic in this regard.
Wrist morphology reveals substantial locomotor diversity among early catarrhines: an analysis of capitates from the early Miocene of Tinderet (Kenya)
One of the fossil specimens is uniquely derived among early and middle Miocene capitates, representing the earliest known instance of great ape-like wrist morphology and supporting the presence of a behaviourally advanced ape at Songhor.


Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes
The oldest known fossil ‘ape’ is described, represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with ‘nyanzapithecine’ stem hominoids, and the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade is reported, representing by a lower third molar.
Origin of the hominidae : the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 my and 4 my
Much progress has recently been made, but further hominoid specimens, coupled with environmental information from well-calibrated sequences, is necessary to elucidate the nature and causes of cladistic branching within the superfamily.
New fossil anthropoids from the middle Miocene of East Africa and their bearing on the origin of the oreopithecidae.
  • T. Harrison
  • Geography, Geology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1986
Good fossil evidence is indicated to indicate that the origins of the Oreopithecidae can be traced back to the early Miocene of Africa.
New partial cranium of Dryopithecus lartet, 1863 (Hominoidea, Primates) from the upper Miocene of Can Llobateres, Barcelona, Spain
The analysis of the phylogenetic relationships makes us think that Dryopithecus belongs to the clade of the extant great apes and is a primitive member of the Pongo clade, and the hypothesis suggests that some of the dental and postcranial characters shared by Pongo and the African great apes are homoplasies.
Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution
A new genus of small-bodied ape from the Miocene era that contains characteristics from both hominoids andSmall-bodied apes may have contributed more to the evolution of the hominoid lineage than previously thought, and this genus exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features that forces us to reevaluate the role played bysmall-bodied catarrhines in ape evolution.
Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals
It is found that most Neanderthal tooth crowns grew more rapidly than modern human teeth, resulting in significantly faster dental maturation, consistent with recent cranial and molecular evidence for subtle developmental differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens.
European Miocene Hominids and the Origin of the African Ape and Human Clade
It is somewhat more probable that the authors' early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere, and since so remote a period the earth has certainly undergone many great revolutions, and there has been ample time for migration on the largest scale.
Facial anatomy of Victoriapithecus and its relevance to the ancestral cranial morphology of Old World monkeys and apes.
Cranial similarities between Victoriapithecus and the shorter-snouted Cercopithecinae indicate that the last common ancestor of Old World monkeys possessed the following features: a narrow interorbital septum, moderately long snout, moderate long and anteriorly tapering premaxilla, large procumbent upper central incisors set anterior to and with longer roots than lateral incisor.
Enigmatic Anthropoid or Misunderstood Ape
The phylogenetic status of Oreopithecus bambolii from the late Miocene of Italy has been a source of much debate since the species was first described in 1872. This observation in itself is hardly