New evidence for the processing of wild cereal grains at Ohalo II, a 23 000-year-old campsite on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel

@article{Nadel2012NewEF,
  title={New evidence for the processing of wild cereal grains at Ohalo II, a 23 000-year-old campsite on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel},
  author={Dani Nadel and Dolores R. Piperno and Irene Holst and Ainit Snir and Ehud Weiss},
  journal={Antiquity},
  year={2012},
  volume={86},
  pages={990 - 1003}
}
Traces of starch found on a large flat stone discovered in the hunter-fisher-gatherer site of Ohalo II famously represent the first identification of Upper Palaeolithic grinding of grasses. Given the importance of this discovery for the use of edible grain, further analyses have now been undertaken. Meticulous sampling combined with good preservation allow the authors to demonstrate that the Ohalo II stone was certainly used for the routine processing of wild cereals, wheat, barley and now oats… 
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References

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More than 16 000 grains of small-grained grasses were retrieved at Ohalo II, a submerged 23 000-year-old site on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The grains were part of a very large
Grinding flour in Upper Palaeolithic Europe (25000 years bp)
The authors have identified starch grains belonging to wild plants on the surface of a stone from the Gravettian hunter-gatherer campsite of Bilancino (Florence, Italy), dated to around 25000bp. The
Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis
TLDR
The earliest direct evidence for human processing of grass seeds, including barley and possibly wheat, in the form of starch grains recovered from a ground stone artefact from the Upper Palaeolithic site of Ohalo II in Israel is reported.
Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing
TLDR
Evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II, Kostenki 16–Uglyanka, and Pavlov VI suggest that vegetal food processing was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago.
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The discovery of well-preserved human remains at the site of Ohalo II in the northern Jordan Valley substantially augments the meager fossil record of the Levantine late Upper Pleistocene. The Ohalo
Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)
TLDR
Direct evidence is reported for Neanderthal consumption of a variety of plant foods, in the form of phytoliths and starch grains recovered from dental calculus of Neanderthal skeletons from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, and Spy Cave, Belgium, suggesting an overall sophistication in Neanderthal dietary regimes.
The avifauna of the early Epipalaeolithic site of Ohalo II (19 400 years BP), Israel: species diversity, habitat and seasonality
TLDR
A biseasonal, or perhaps extended winter occupation pattern at Ohalo II seems to support a shift away from the generalized foraging economy of hunter–gatherers and to indicate the onset of planned intensive collecting, thus foreshadowing the initial steps toward sedentism.
Radiocarbon dating of Ohalo II: Archaeological and methodological implications
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