New advancements in charge-coupled device technology: subelectron noise and 4096 x 4096 pixel CCDs

@inproceedings{Janesick1990NewAI,
  title={New advancements in charge-coupled device technology: subelectron noise and 4096 x 4096 pixel CCDs},
  author={James Janesick and Tom S. Elliott and Arsham Dingiziam and Richard A. Bredthauer and Charles Chandler and James A. Westphal and James E. Gunn},
  booktitle={Other Conferences},
  year={1990}
}
This paper reports on two new advancements in CCD technology. The first area of development has produced a special purpose CCD designed for ultra low-signal level imaging and spectroscopy applications that require sub-electron read noise floors. A nondestructive output circuit operating near its 1/f noise regime is clocked in a special manner to read a single pixel multiple times. Off-chip electronics average the multiple values, reducing the random noise by the square-root of the number of… 
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