New Transitional Fleas from China Highlighting Diversity of Early Cretaceous Ectoparasitic Insects

@article{Gao2013NewTF,
  title={New Transitional Fleas from China Highlighting Diversity of Early Cretaceous Ectoparasitic Insects},
  author={Taiping Gao and Chungkun Shih and Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn and Xing Xu and Shuo Wang and Dong Ren},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2013},
  volume={23},
  pages={1261-1266}
}
Fleas are a group of highly specialized blood-feeding ectoparasites whose early evolutionary history is poorly known. Although several recent discoveries have shed new light on the origin of the group, a considerable gap exists between stem fleas and crown fleas. Here we report a new transitional flea, Saurophthirus exquisitus sp. nov., assigned to a new family Saurophthiridae fam. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of northeastern China. Saurophthirids are more similar to crown… 
A new Early Cretaceous flea from China
Fleas are highly specialized holometabolic insects. So far, only 16 species of fossil fleas in five families have been reported due to the rare fossil records. At present, the earliest flea fossils
The first flea with fully distended abdomen from the Early Cretaceous of China
TLDR
The female specimen with extremely distended abdomen suggests that it might have consumed its last meal before its demise, and new findings further support that fleas had evolved a broad diversity by the Early Cretaceous.
The diversity and host associations of Mesozoic giant fleas
The co-evolution of parasites and their hosts is one of the most interesting scientific fields within animal evolution. However, the fossil record of parasites is extremely poor because of their
Tarwinia australis (Siphonaptera: Tarwiniidae) from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra fossil bed: Morphological revision and analysis of its evolutionary relationship
Abstract Tarwinia australis , from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra fossil bed, Victoria, South Australia, is the first described Mesozoic flea. It was suggested to have a unique morphology that
Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and Evolved with Theria
TLDR
A molecular phylogenetic study based on a comprehensive taxon sampling of 259 flea taxa, suggesting that Theria (placental mammals and marsupials) represent the most likely ancestral host group of extant Siphonaptera, with marsupial occupying a more important role than previously assumed.
Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and evolved with Theria.
TLDR
A molecular phylogenetic study based on a comprehensive taxon sampling of 259 flea taxa, suggesting that Theria (placental mammals and marsupials) represent the most likely ancestral host group of extant Siphonaptera, with marsupial occupying a more important role than previously assumed.
Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva
TLDR
A bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae, reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens the understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.
Subfamily Anischiinae (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae) in Early Cretaceous of Northeast China
TLDR
It is shown that these insects have changed their host preference from gymnosperms to angiosperms at least twice, and this proves that highly specialized morphological features do not offer definite proof of similar way of life in the distant past, and should not be taken as proof for another kind of substrate choice.
Description of a new species of Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Jehol Biota of China with a geometric morphometric evaluation
TLDR
The results suggest that Glaresidae, likely the sister group of all other extant Scarabaeoidea, had been established in the Early Cretaceous and contained larger species than today.
Ticks parasitised feathered dinosaurs as revealed by Cretaceous amber assemblages
TLDR
Direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber is reported showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs, non-avialan or avialan excluding crown-group birds.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China
TLDR
Giant forms from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods of China exhibit many defining features of fleas but retain primitive traits such as non-jumping hindlegs, implying that these fleas may be rooted among the pollinating ‘long siphonate’ scorpionflies of the Mesozoic.
Mesozoic giant fleas from northeastern China (Siphonaptera): Taxonomy and implications for palaeodiversity
TLDR
The basal morphological disparities of Siphonaptera in the Mesozoic are evidenced by the occurrence of at least three distinct groups (pseudopulicids, tarwiniids, and saurophthirids).
Mid-Mesozoic Flea-like Ectoparasites of Feathered or Haired Vertebrates
TLDR
Large body size and long serrated stylets for piercing tough and thick skin or hides of hosts suggest that these primitive ectoparasites might have lived on and sucked the blood of relatively large hosts, such as contemporaneous feathered dinosaurs and/or pterosaurs or medium-sized mammals (found in the Early Cretaceous, but not the Middle Jurassic).
First extinct genus of a flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic
TLDR
The Tertiary record and biogeographical history of land mammals on these islands suggests that early spilopsyllines may have parasitized the endemic solenodon insectivores or echimyid rats.
Pterosaur diversity and faunal turnover in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in China
TLDR
Two new pterosaurs that are referred to European groups previously unknown in deposits of northeastern China are reported, showing a wide range of groups including both primitive and derived forms that are not matched by any other deposit in the world.
Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period
TLDR
It is concluded that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions, and the idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported and the lineage can be placed within the true flies.
A new pterosaur (Ctenochasmatidae, Archaeopterodactyloidea) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China
A partial skeleton (including skull, mandible and soft tissue) of a new archaeopterodactyloid pterosaur, Gegepterus changi gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of Liaoning, northeast China is
Discovery of a pterodactylid pterosaur from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China
A well-preserved pterosaur with nearly complete skull is described from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Sihetun in western Liaoning. It is characterized by a low and long crestless skull,
A pulicid flea in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Insecta, Siphonaptera, Pulicidae). American Museum novitates ; no.3205
TLDR
A new species of flea, Pulex larimerius, is described on the basis of a complete female specimen in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic, which is unique as the only known fossil in the Pulicidae.
Lower Cretaceous Fleas
  • E. Riek
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature
  • 1970
TLDR
Two fleas have been collected in association with abundant remains of fish, plants, phyllopod Crustacea and other insects in a Lower Cretaceous siltstone at Koonwarra, southern Gippsland, Australia.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...