New Reports that Monarch Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) are Hosts for a Pupal Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidae, Pteromalus cassotis Walker)

@inproceedings{Stenoien2015NewRT,
  title={New Reports that Monarch Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) are Hosts for a Pupal Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidae, Pteromalus cassotis Walker)},
  author={Carl M. Stenoien and Shaun Michael McCoshum and Wendy K. Caldwell and Alma de Anda and Karen S. Oberhauser},
  year={2015}
}
Abstract Monarch butterflies are one of the best studied non-pest lepidopterans, serving as a model for migration, chemical ecology, and insect conservation. Despite the intensity with which the larvae and adults have been studied, the cryptic pupal stage is often difficult to study in the wild. It is perhaps due to this difficulty that researchers have largely overlooked monarchs’ interactions with a pupal parasitoid, Pteromalus cassotis. Using field experiments in the northern U.S. and… Expand
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