New Reports that Monarch Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) are Hosts for a Pupal Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidae, Pteromalus cassotis Walker)

  title={New Reports that Monarch Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) are Hosts for a Pupal Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidae, Pteromalus cassotis Walker)},
  author={Carl M. Stenoien and Shaun Michael McCoshum and Wendy K. Caldwell and Alma de Anda and Karen S. Oberhauser},
Abstract Monarch butterflies are one of the best studied non-pest lepidopterans, serving as a model for migration, chemical ecology, and insect conservation. Despite the intensity with which the larvae and adults have been studied, the cryptic pupal stage is often difficult to study in the wild. It is perhaps due to this difficulty that researchers have largely overlooked monarchs’ interactions with a pupal parasitoid, Pteromalus cassotis. Using field experiments in the northern U.S. and… Expand
Tachinid Fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) Parasitoids of Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
This work documents the tachinid community that attacks monarchs in the United States, evaluates their relative frequency, and examines variation in their specificity, oviposition strategy, and use of host stages. Expand
Species distribution models for natural enemies of monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae and pupae: distribution patterns and implications for conservation
The Gulf Coast, West Coast, Florida, and parts of the eastern United States are predicted to have the most natural enemy species and it is suggested that future research should assess monarch mortality rates in these areas, and that monarch conservation strategies consider pressure from natural enemies. Expand
Patterns and causes of oviposition in monarch butterflies: Implications for milkweed restoration
The results suggest that investing heavily in milkweed restoration in roadside habitats should be done cautiously and that a better strategy may be for managers to develop incentive programs with landowners to plant and maintain milkweeds in agricultural landscapes, which could complement other pollinator initiatives or ecosystem service programs in Agricultural landscapes that focus on increasing nectar availability. Expand
Does chemistry make a difference? Milkweed butterfly sequestered cardenolides as a defense against parasitoid wasps
It is found that P. puparum was unable to develop from monarchs, regardless of toxicity, suggesting that milkweed butterflies may employ other defenses against parasitoids, perhaps in addition to cardenolides. Expand
Monarchs in decline: a collateral landscape‐level effect of modern agriculture
Modeling studies that simulate lifetime realized fecundity at a landscape scale, direct counts of milkweeds, and extensive citizen science data across the breeding range suggest that a herbicide‐induced, landscape‐level reduction in milkweed has precipitated the decline in monarchs. Expand
Evaluating Cardiac Reactions of Monarch Butterflies to Human Handling across Three Life Stages
  • A. K. Davis
  • Biology
  • The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society
  • 2020
Investigating if brief periods of handling monarch larvae, pupae, or adults elevates their heart rate using either microscopy or an electronic heart monitor designed for invertebrates elucidates the unseen physiological impact of direct human contact on developing monarchs (larvae and pupae). Expand
  • 2020


Parasitism of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus Plexippus) by Lespesia Archippivora (Diptera: Tachinidae)
Report of parasitism rates by this tachinid fly in wild captured monarchs, using data collected over 7 y by 77 volunteers in the Monarch Larva Monitoring Project, suggests that females either respond to larger hosts by laying more eggs or that superparasitism (parasitic by more than one individual) occurs. Expand
Non-target parasitism of the endemic New Zealand red admiral butterfly (Bassaris gonerilla) by the introduced biological control agent Pteromalus puparum
It is concluded that P. puparum has permanently enhanced mortality in B. gonerilla , but the level of mortality is low relative to egg parasitism by Telenomus sp. Expand
The species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) introduced to North America for biological control of the cabbage seedpod weevil, and the first recovery of Stenomalina gracilis (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae)
The species of Pteromalidae introduced to British Columbia, Canada, from Europe in 1949 as Trichomalus fasciatus, Xenocrepis pura Mayr, 1904, and Habrocytus sp. Expand
The parasitoid complex attacking Finnish populations of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (Lep: Nymphalidae), and endangered butterfly
Ten species of parasitoids were found in association with a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (L.) in a fragmented landscape in SW Finland. Two primary larvalExpand
Parasitism, predation, and disease in the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae).
It appears that fungi contributed most heavily to bagworm mortality during wet periods and that insect parasitoids were the predominant mortality factor during dry periods. Expand
Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections
DNA barcoded 2,597 parasitoid wasps belonging to 6 microgastrine braconid genera reared from parapatric tropical dry forest, cloud forest, and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica and combined these data with records of caterpillar hosts and morphological analyses to result in a much more fine-scaled understanding of Parasitoid diversity and host specificity. Expand
What determines host range in parasitoids? An analysis of a tachinid parasitoid community
The results of this study suggest that ecological factors are important determinants of host use in these parasitoids and although phylogenetic history may influence the range of hosts used, its power to explain the ecological or taxonomic character ofhosts used appears limited. Expand
Chinese mantids gut toxic monarch caterpillars: avoidance of prey defence?
Chinese mantids gutted monarchs while wholly consuming non-toxic species, confirming the presence of plant material and the differences in the carbon/nitrogen ratio and cardenolide content of monarch tissue consumed or discarded by mantids were analysed. Expand
Milkweeds, monarch butterflies and the ecological significance of cardenolides
SummaryThe contribution of Miriam Rothschild to the “monarch cardenolide story” is reviewed in the light of the 1914 challenge by the evolutionary biologist, E.B. Poulton for North American chemistsExpand
Dynamics and trends of overwintering colonies of the monarch butterfly in Mexico
There are two breeding migratory populations of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America. A comparatively small, Western population migrates from states west of the Rocky MountainsExpand