New Perspectives on Ancient Mars

  title={New Perspectives on Ancient Mars},
  author={Sean C. Solomon and Oded Aharonson and Jonathan M. Aurnou and William Bruce Banerdt and Michael H. Carr and Andrew J. Dombard and Herbert V. Frey and Matthew P. Golombek and Steven A. Hauck, and James W. Head and Bruce M. Jakosky and Catherine L. Johnson and Patrick J. McGovern and Gregory A. Neumann and Roger J. Phillips and David E. Smith and Maria T. Zuber},
  pages={1214 - 1220}
Mars was most active during its first billion years. The core, mantle, and crust formed within ∼50 million years of solar system formation. A magnetic dynamo in a convecting fluid core magnetized the crust, and the global field shielded a more massive early atmosphere against solar wind stripping. The Tharsis province became a focus for volcanism, deformation, and outgassing of water and carbon dioxide in quantities possibly sufficient to induce episodes of climate warming. Surficial and near… 
Water and the evolutionary geological history of Mars
Mars and Earth are the only two planets known to have long histories of dynamical cycling of water through their atmosphere, lithosphere, and cryosphere. Although we have known for thirty years that
Geology of Mars after the first 40 years of exploration
The knowledge of Martian geology has increased enormously in the last 40 yr. Several missions orbiting or roving Mars have revolutionized our understanding of its evolution and geological features,
Mars' Paleomagnetic Field as the Result of a Single-Hemisphere Dynamo
Numerical dynamo modeling is used to demonstrate that the mechanisms proposed to explain crustal dichotomy formation can result in a single-hemisphere dynamo, which produces strong magnetic fields in only the southern hemisphere.
Martian crustal dichotomy and Tharsis formation by partial melting coupled to early plume migration
[1] A recently proposed model links the formation and early evolution of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars to the preexisting hemispheric dichotomy (Zhong, 2009). A key aspect of this model is
Thermal demagnetization of Martian upper crust by magma intrusion
The absent or weak magnetic field above large Martian volcanoes may provide constraints on their formation and the carrier of magnetization. We consider the ability of magma intrusions to thermally


Crustal heat production and the thermal evolution of Mars
The chemical composition of soils and rocks from the Pathfinder site and Phobos‐2 orbital gamma‐ray spectroscopy indicate that the Martian crust has a bulk composition equivalent to large‐ion
Magnetic lineations in the ancient crust of mars
The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft obtained vector magnetic field measurements above the surface of Mars and groups of quasi-parallel linear features of alternating magnetic polarity were found, reminiscent of similar magnetic features associated with sea floor spreading and crustal genesis on Earth but with a much larger spatial scale.
Tharsis as a consequence of Mars' dichotomy and layered mantle
The two most striking features of the martian surface topography are the Tharsis rise and the crustal dichotomy. Closely associated with Tharsis are several large volcanoes, active in the
Water and the martian landscape
Data from the Mars Global Surveyor mission confirm the view that brief episodes of water-related activity, including glaciation, punctuated the geological history of Mars, and are anomalous in regard to the prevailing view that the martian surface has been continuously extremely cold and dry, much as it is today, for the past 3.9 billion years.
Mars' volatile and climate history
This work piece together the relevant observations into a coherent view of the evolution of the martian climate, focusing in particular on the observations that provide the strongest constraints.
Voluminous volcanism on early Mars revealed in Valles Marineris
The relative rates and importance of impact cratering, volcanism, erosion, and the deposition of sediments to the early geological history of Mars are poorly known. That history is recorded in the
Magma ocean fractional crystallization and cumulate overturn in terrestrial planets: Implications for Mars
Abstract— Crystallization of a magma ocean on a large terrestrial planet that is significantly melted by the energy of accretion may lead to an unstable cumulate density stratification, which may
Distribution of crustal magnetic fields on Mars: Shock effects of basin‐forming impacts
Crustal magnetic fields on Mars are inhomogeneously distributed with the strongest fields occurring over the southern highlands in a longitude sector between approximately 130°E and 240°E. Using
Thermal and crustal evolution of Mars
[1] We present a coupled thermal-magmatic model for the evolution of Mars' mantle and crust that may be consistent with estimates of the average crustal thickness and crustal growth rate. By coupling