New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys

@article{Zalmout2010NewOP,
  title={New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys},
  author={Iyad S. Zalmout and William J. Sanders and Laura M Maclatchy and Gregg F. Gunnell and Yahya S. A. Al-Mufarreh and Mohammad Ansar Ali and Abdul-Azziz H. Nasser and Abdu M. Al-Masari and Salih A. Al-Sobhi and Ayman O. Nadhra and Adel H. Matari and JEFFREY A. Wilson and Philip D. Gingerich},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2010},
  volume={466},
  pages={360-364}
}
It is widely understood that Hominoidea (apes and humans) and Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) have a common ancestry as Catarrhini deeply rooted in Afro-Arabia. The oldest stem Catarrhini in the fossil record are Propliopithecoidea, known from the late Eocene to early Oligocene epochs (roughly 35–30 Myr ago) of Egypt, Oman and possibly Angola. Genome-based estimates for divergence of hominoids and cercopithecoids range into the early Oligocene; however, the mid-to-late Oligocene interval… 
Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes
TLDR
The oldest known fossil ‘ape’ is described, represented by a partial mandible preserving dental features that place it with ‘nyanzapithecine’ stem hominoids, and the oldest stem member of the Old World monkey clade is reported, representing by a lower third molar.
Primitive Catarrhines and Fossil Apes
Last of the oligopithecids? A dwarf species from the youngest primate-bearing level of the Jebel Qatrani Formation, northern Egypt.
Early primate evolution in Afro‐Arabia
  • E. Seiffert
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Evolutionary anthropology
  • 2012
TLDR
Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid‐like adaptations known as adapiforms.
Miocene small-bodied ape from Eurasia sheds light on hominoid evolution
TLDR
A new genus of small-bodied ape from the Miocene era that contains characteristics from both hominoids andSmall-bodied apes may have contributed more to the evolution of the hominoid lineage than previously thought, and this genus exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features that forces us to reevaluate the role played bysmall-bodied catarrhines in ape evolution.
Fossil apes from the vallès‐penedès basin
  • D. Alba
  • Geography
    Evolutionary anthropology
  • 2012
TLDR
The fossil record of Vallès‐Penedès apes is reviewed and some important lessons can be learned regarding the evolutionary history of the closest living relatives of humans.
Evolutionary History of the Odd-Nosed Monkeys and the Phylogenetic Position of the Newly Described Myanmar Snub-Nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri
TLDR
This study provides the most comprehensive view on odd-nosed monkey evolution and emphasizes that data from differentially inherited markers are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace secondary gene flow.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Miocene hominoid craniofacial morphology and the emergence of great apes.
  • T. Rae
  • Geography
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • 2004
Systematics of early and middle Miocene Old World monkeys.
Evolution and Extinction of Afro-Arabian Primates Near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary
  • E. Seiffert
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Folia Primatologica
  • 2007
TLDR
Revised age estimates for the primate-bearing localities of the Jebel Qatrani Formation have provided a new perspective on primate response to early Oligocene climate change in North Africa, and evidence for latitudinal contraction of Afro-Arabian primate distribution through the early O oligopithecid anthropoids suggests that the profound late Olig epoch restructuring of Afrodouble communities is most likely to have occurred in equatorial and low-latitude tropical Africa.
Phylogeny for the Neogene hominoid primates of Eurasia
TLDR
The Miocene Hominoids: Function and Phylogeny examines Eurasian hominoid evolution in the light of recent Dryopithecus findings and some cladistic fallacies and the significance of developmental constraints in phylogenetic analysis.
A remarkable female cranium of the early Oligocene anthropoid Aegyptopithecus zeuxis (Catarrhini, Propliopithecidae)
TLDR
High-resolution computed tomographic scanning of the specimen's well preserved cranial vault confirms that Aegyptopithecus had relatively unexpanded frontal lobes and a brain-to-body mass ratio lower than those of living anthropoids, and some amount of encephalization evolved independently in platyrrhine and catarrhine anthropoids.
A taxonomic revision of the small catarrhine primates from the early Miocene of East Africa.
  • T. Harrison
  • Biology
    Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology
  • 1988
This paper presents a detailed systematic revision of the small catarrhine primates from the early Miocene of East Africa, recovered from sites in Western Kenya and in Uganda dated at between 22 and
Genomic data support the hominoid slowdown and an Early Oligocene estimate for the hominoid-cercopithecoid divergence.
TLDR
This article tests the robusticity of the 23- to 25-Mya hominoid-cercopithecoid divergence estimate with approximately 150,000 base pairs of orthologous DNA sequence data from two cercopithecoids and two hominoids by using quartet analysis, and tests for a statistically appropriate model of molecular evolution.
...
...