New Middle Eocene Archaeocetes (Cetacea:Mammalia) from the Kuldana Formation of Northern Pakistan

  title={New Middle Eocene Archaeocetes (Cetacea:Mammalia) from the Kuldana Formation of Northern Pakistan},
  author={Lisa Noelle Cooper and J. G. M. Thewissen and S. Taseer Hussain},
ABSTRACT Two new species of fossil cetaceans (Pakicetus calcis and Pakicetus chittas) are described from a new locality in the Kuldana Formation (Lutetian, middle Eocene) of the Kala Chitta Hills in Northern Pakistan. Additional dentitions of the pakicetid Nalacetus ratimitus, the remingtonocetid Attockicetus, and additional dental material of the holotype of Ambulocetus natans are also described. Dental morphology of Nalacetus is intermediate between pakicetids and ambulocetids, as indicated… 

Astragali of Pakicetidae and other early-to-middle Eocene archaeocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea) of Pakistan: locomotion and habitat in the initial stages of whale evolution

Multivariate morphometric comparison (Auto3Dgm) shows that pakicetid astragali overlap almost completely in shape with those of early artiodactyls, and Retention of an a stragalus indistinguishable from that of artiodActyls shows thatpakicETids are closely related to artiodACTyls phylogenetically, but does not make Ichthyolestes and Pakicetus terrestrial or cursorial.

Problematic archaic whale Phococetus (Cetacea: Odontoceti) from the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, USA, with comments on geochronology of the Pungo River Formation

Heterodont cetaceans are abundant in Eocene, Oligocene, and early to middle Miocene deposits worldwide. Taxonomic practice in the 19th and early 20th centuries led to the establishment of a multitude

Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls

Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water, which expands the understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissODactyl origins.

Diverse stem cetaceans and their phylogenetic relationships with mesonychids and artiodactyls

Detailed review and more extensive phylogenetic analyses on anthracotheriids and entelodontids will aid the clarification of uncertainties related to the hippopotamus-cetacean phylogenetic hypothesis.

New Applications for Constrained Ordination: Reconstructing Feeding Behaviors in Fossil Remingtonocetinae (Cetacea: Mammalia)

A novel combined ordination of morphology and feeding strategy, while accounting for phylogeny, is utilized in a sample of 2 remingtonocetines and 18 extant cetartiodactylans to assess the morphological signal of feeding behaviors, showing that differences between prey acquisition in extant taxa were driven by a suite of mandibular characters and width of the palatal arch.

Evolution of dental wear and diet during the origin of whales

It is found that nearly all investigated Eocene cetaceans had dental wear different from typical wear in ungulates and isotope values indicating that they hunted similar prey and processed it similarly, implying that the evolution of masticatory function preceded that of crown morphology and diet at the origin of cetACEans.

Enamel Microstructure in Cetacea: a Case Study in Evolutionary Loss of Complexity

Overall, more complex dental structure in extant and extinct cetaceans is associated with smaller, more numerous teeth in taxa that bite or grasp smaller, harder prey with longer, narrower jaws and have more oral processing.

Evolutionary aspects of the development of teeth and baleen in the bowhead whale

The development of teeth and baleen in bowhead whale fetuses is investigated using histological and immunohistochemical evidence and it is proposed that the signaling cascade that forms teeth in most mammals has been exapted to be involved in balean plate ontogeny in mysticetes.




Three new archawcetes of late early Lutetian are described from the Domanda Formation of the Sulaiman Range in southwestern Punjab, Pakistan, two are protocetids and the third, Dalanistes ahmedi, is a large remingtonocetid preserving much of the skull, including distinctive exoccipitals.

Attockicetus praecursor, A New Remingtonocetid Cetacean from Marine Eocene Sediments of Pakistan

A new early-to-middle Eocene cetacean from the Kala Chitta Hills of northern Pakistan is described: Attockicetus praecursor new genus and species. It is based on fragmentary cranial material,

A New Protocetid Whale (Cetacea: Archaeoceti) from the Late Middle Eocene of South Carolina

A new genus and species of protocetid cetacean is described from a partial skull, the posterior portion of both dentaries, 13 vertebrae, and elements of 15 ribs found in the Cross Member of the late middle Eocene Tupelo Bay Formation in Berkeley County, South Carolina.


The abundance and diversity of cetaceans and tethytheres at Ganda Kas suggests marked affinities of South Asian faunas with the other major Tethyan Eocene assemblage at Fayum, Egypt.

Additional holotype remains of Ambulocetus natans (Cetacea, Ambulocetidae), and their implications for locomotion in early whales

Contin excavation at the type locality of Ambulocetus natans led to the recovery of a majority of the axial skeleton of the holotype, including both innominates, the sacrum, and most of the thoracic cage and thoracolumbar vertebral column, suggesting that previous estimates of spinal length derived from models of mesonychid ancestry may be inaccurate.

A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales.

  • S. BajpaiP. Gingerich
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Himalayacetus subathuensis is a new pakicetid archaeocete from the Subathu Formation of northern India that has a small mandibular canal and Pakicetus-like molar teeth suggesting that it fed on fish.

Remingtonocetus harudiensis, new combination, a Middle Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from Western Kutch, India

ABSTRACT A new genus of archaeocete cetaceans, Remingtonocetus, is based on revision of previously described and recently collected well preserved skull material from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian)

New species of protocetid archaeocete whale, Eocetus wardii (Mammalia: Cetacea) from the middle Eocene of North Carolina

  • M. Uhen
  • Biology
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 1999
A new species of protocetid archaeocete, Eocetus wardii n. sp., is named based on material from the late Lutetian (middle Eocene, 43-44 Ma) Comfort Member of the Castle Hayne Formation, North

Eocene Actinopterygian Fishes from Pakistan, with the Description of a New Genus and Species of Channid (Channiformes)

Fish material reported here indicates a relationship between the Pakistan fauna in the Eocene with that of northern Africa, with skulls of a channiform fish described as a new genus and species.

Dentition of Early Eocene Pakicetus (Mammalia, Cetacea)

Thirty deciduous and permanent teeth of Pakicetus inachus are described from Chorlakki in Palustan, suggesting that iuveniles and adults were present in approximately equal proportions, and juveniles, like adults, spent a significant amount of time on land.