New Light on the Mind’s Eye

@article{Matht2015NewLO,
  title={New Light on the Mind’s Eye},
  author={Sebastiaan Math{\^o}t and Stefan van der Stigchel},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={24},
  pages={374 - 378}
}
The eye’s pupils constrict (shrink) in brightness and dilate (expand) in darkness. The pupillary light response was historically considered a low-level reflex without any cognitive component. Here, we review recent studies that have dramatically changed this view: The light response depends not only on a stimulus’s brightness but also on whether you are aware of the stimulus, whether you are paying attention to it, and even whether you are thinking about it. We highlight the link between the… Expand
The mind-writing pupil: near-perfect decoding of visual attention with pupillometry.
TLDR
A human-computer interface based on decoding the focus of covert visual attention with pupillometry, which allows for bi-directional communication and potential applications, such as communication with locked-in patients and ultra-secure password input. Expand
Pupil response components: attention-light interaction in patients with Parinaud’s syndrome
TLDR
It is interpreted as proof of principle that attention to bright or dark stimuli can dynamically modulate pupil size in patients with Parinaud’s syndrome and indicating that several components of the pupillary response can be isolated – including one related to the focus of covert attention. Expand
Tuning the Senses: How the Pupil Shapes Vision at the Earliest Stage.
  • S. Mathôt
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Annual review of vision science
  • 2020
TLDR
It is proposed that cognitive pupil responses, like their reflexive counterparts, serve to optimize vision: an emphasis on central vision over peripheral vision results in pupil constriction, and this likely reflects the fact that central vision benefits most from the increased visual acuity provided by small pupils. Expand
Pupil Size as a Gateway Into Conscious Interpretation of Brightness
TLDR
Results revealed that when participants were aware of the sun pictures their pupils constricted relative to the control stimuli, but this was not the case when the pictures were successfully suppressed from awareness, demonstrating that pupil size is highly sensitive to the contents of consciousness. Expand
The pupillary light response reflects encoding, but not maintenance, in visual working memory.
TLDR
The results reveal that the encoding of task-relevant and physically present information in visual working memory is reflected in the pupil, and the pupil is not sensitive to the maintenance oftask-relevant but no longer visible stimuli. Expand
The pupillary light response reflects encoding, but not maintenance, in visual working memory.
The pupillary light response has been shown not to be a purely reflexive mechanism but to be sensitive to higher order perceptual processes, such as covert visual attention. In the present study weExpand
Exploring the interaction between the pupillary light response after exogenous attentional cueing and detection performance
TLDR
Results showed that a larger pupil was indeed related to increased detection performance, although this effect was restricted to conditions in which both cue and target appeared on a dark surface, in line with the notion that pupil dilations improve detectability, whereas pupil constrictions enhance discriminability of small stimuli. Expand
Focus of spatial attention during spatial working memory maintenance: Evidence from pupillary light response
ABSTRACT In this experiment, we demonstrate modulation of the pupillary light response by spatial working memory (SWM). The pupillary light response has previously been shown to reflect the focus ofExpand
Pupillometry: Psychology, Physiology, and Function
  • S. Mathôt
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of cognition
  • 2018
TLDR
This review describes these three pupil responses, how they are related to high-level cognition, and the neural pathways that control them, and how pupil responses help us to better see the world. Expand
Attending and inhibiting stimuli that match the contents of visual working memory: Evidence from eye movements and pupillometry
When you keep a red apple in working memory, your attention is usually–but not always– attracted by other red objects. The conditions under which the contents of visual working memory guide visualExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
The pupillary light response reflects eye-movement preparation.
TLDR
It is shown that preparation triggers a pupillary response to the brightness of a to-be-fixated target background already before the eyes have landed on it, which illustrates that the PLR is a dynamic movement that is tightly linked to visual attention and eye-movement preparation. Expand
Attention to Bright Surfaces Enhances the Pupillary Light Reflex
TLDR
The attentional modulation of the PLR constitutes a new mechanism through which vision is affected by attention, and three alternatives for the neural substrates of this effect are discussed, including the possibility that attention might act indirectly, via its well established effects in early visual cortex. Expand
The Pupillary Light Response Reveals the Focus of Covert Visual Attention
TLDR
It is suggested that pupil size may offer a new way to continuously track the focus of covert visual attention, without requiring a manual response from the participant. Expand
The Eye Pupil Adjusts to Imaginary Light
TLDR
The observed pupillary adjustments to imaginary light present a strong case for accounts of mental imagery as a process based on brain states similar to those that arise during perception. Expand
Pupil constrictions to photographs of the sun.
TLDR
The results indicate that high-level visual analysis (beyond the simple subcortical system mediating the pupillary response to light) can also induce pupillary constriction, with an effect size of about 0.1 mm. Expand
Bright illusions reduce the eye's pupil
TLDR
The pupillary physiological response reflects the subjective perception of light and supports the idea that the brain's visual circuitry is shaped by visual experience with images and their possible sources. Expand
The pupillary light response reflects exogenous attention and inhibition of return.
TLDR
The results support the view that inhibition of return results from habituation to (or short-term depression of) visual input and conclude that the pupillary light response is a complex eye movement that reflects how the authors selectively parse and interpret visual input. Expand
Pupil size reflects the focus of feature-based attention.
TLDR
Pupil size reflects not just luminance or cognitive state, but the interaction between the two: it reflects which luminance level in the visual scene is relevant for the task at hand. Expand
Pupillometry: A Window to the Preconscious?
  • B. Laeng, S. Sirois, G. Gredebäck
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2012
TLDR
A tight correlation between the activity of the locus coeruleus (i.e., the "hub" of the noradrenergic system) and pupillary dilation and neurophysiological findings provide new important insights to the meaning of pupillary responses for mental activity. Expand
Tracking the allocation of attention using human pupillary oscillations
TLDR
A novel Pupil Frequency Tagging method is demonstrated, where oscillatory changes in stimulus brightness over time are mirrored by pupil constrictions and dilations, which suggest that the amplitudes of pupil responses closely follow the allocation of focal visual attention and the encoding of stimuli. Expand
...
1
2
3
...