Two new isocoumarin derivatives, talaisocoumarins A (1) and B (2), and three new related metabolites, talaflavuols A-C (3-5) were isolated from the wetland soil-derived fungus Talaromyces flavus BYD07-13. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR) and MS analyses. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by CD and an Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD method. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. However, none of them showed any activity. The plausible biosynthetic pathways for 1-5 were also proposed.