New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

  title={New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses},
  author={Sam Van Wassenbergh and B Dries and Anthony Herrel},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using… Expand
Extremely fast feeding strikes are powered by elastic recoil in a seahorse relative, the snipefish, Macroramphosus scolopax
The presence of elastic recoil feeding in snipefish means that this high-performance mechanism is not restricted to the Syngnathidae (seahorses and pipefish) and may have evolved in parallel. Expand
Bluegill sunfish use high power outputs from axial muscles to generate powerful suction-feeding strikes
Although the sternohyoideus muscle shortens to generate small amounts of power, bluegill sunfish require large regions of axial musculature – operating at or near maximum power output – to power suction feeding. Expand
Function of the hypobranchial muscles and hyoidiomandibular ligament during suction capture and bite processing in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum
Hypobranchial muscles of bamboo sharks allow for storage and release of elastic strain energy during suction feeding, which is facilitated by a four-bar linkage that links jaw and hyoid depression. Expand
Kinematics of prey capture and histological development of related organs in juvenile seahorse
  • Jinhui Sun, Bo Zhang, +7 authors G. Qin
  • Biology
  • 2021
A developed visual acuity in the newborn seahorses was revealed, so that they were able to prey once after releasing from the male seahorse's brood pouch, and the attack distance, maximum snout width, capture success rate, and daily food intake of juvenile seah horses increased with maturation. Expand
Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.
The feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to the authors' model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion, and it is suggested that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Expand
Suction feeding by small organisms: Performance limits in larval vertebrates and carnivorous plants.
It is hypothesized that both the high energetic costs and high power requirements of generating rapid suction flow shape the biomechanics of small suction feeders, and that plants and animals have arrived at different solutions due in part to their different energy budgets. Expand
A review of the diets and feeding behaviours of a family of biologically diverse marine fishes (Family Syngnathidae)
Syngnathid diets were most strongly correlated with head characteristics: most notably relative snout lengths and gape sizes, which suggests that dietary differences across genera were largely explained by how syngnATHids differed with respect to these feeding morphologies. Expand


Extremely fast prey capture in pipefish is powered by elastic recoil
In inverse dynamical modelling based upon kinematic data from high-speed videos of prey capture in bay pipefish Syngnathus leptorhynchus, as well as electromyography of the muscle responsible for head rotation (the epaxial muscle), support the elastic power enhancement hypothesis. Expand
Mechanics of snout expansion in suction-feeding seahorses: musculoskeletal force transmission
SUMMARY Seahorses and other syngnathid fishes rely on a widening of the snout to create the buccal volume increase needed to suck prey into the mouth. This snout widening is caused by abduction ofExpand
Kinematics of suction feeding in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi
Lateral and ventral expansions of the head were quantified in Hippocampus reidi and linked to the kinematics of the mouth, hyoid and neurocranium, suggesting that the volume changes caused by lateral expansion are dominant over ventral expansion. Expand
Linking Morphology and Motion: A Test of a Four‐Bar Mechanism in Seahorses*
Kinematic data of the feeding strike in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi is presented and a detailed morphological analysis of the important linkages and joints involved in rotation of the neurocranium and the hyoid are compared with output of a theoretical four‐bar model. Expand
An adaptive explanation for the horse-like shape of seahorses.
It is shown that the seahorse's peculiar head, neck and trunk posture allows for the capture of small shrimps at larger distances from the eyes compared with pipefish, providing a putative selective advantage that may explain the bending of the trunk into a horse-like shape. Expand
Prey capture kinematics and four-bar linkages in the bay pipefish, Syngnathus leptorhynchus.
The presence of a four-bar linkage that facilitates these kinematics by couplings between the pectoral girdle, urohyal, hyoid complex, and the neurocranium-suspensorium complex is confirmed. Expand
Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping
Data support the plantaris longus tendon as a site of elastic energy storage during frog jumping, and demonstrate that catapult mechanisms may be employed even in sub-maximal jumps. Expand
Suction is kid's play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses
It is shown that newborn Hippocampus reidi are able to successfully feed using an extremely rapid and powerful snout rotation combined with a high-volume suction, surpassing that observed in adult seahorses. Expand
Analysis of the feeding kinematics of Astatotilapia (a small cichlid fish) suggests the presence of peripheral feedback modulation of the motor pattern, allowing the act of suction to be abbreviated.Expand
Storage and recovery of elastic potential energy powers ballistic prey capture in toads
The results suggest that central nervous control of ballistic tongue projection in toads likely requires the specification of relatively few parameters and elastic recoil of muscle itself can contribute significantly to the power of ballistic movements. Expand