New Information on the Skull of the Early Triassic Parareptile Sauropareion anoplus, with a Discussion of Tooth Attachment and Replacement in Procolophonids

  title={New Information on the Skull of the Early Triassic Parareptile Sauropareion anoplus, with a Discussion of Tooth Attachment and Replacement in Procolophonids},
  author={Mark J. MacDougall and Sean P. Modesto},
ABSTRACT A partial reptile skull collected from the Lower Triassic (Induan) Barendskraal locality of South Africa is referable to the procolophonid parareptile Sauropareion anoplus. The specimen comprises the left side of the skull roof, palate, and mandible, and preserves areas not preserved or accessible in the skulls of previously published specimens, including fragmentary remains of the premaxilla, the anterior end of the maxilla, and the anterior end and lingual aspect of the mandible. The… 

The Postcranial Skeleton of the Early Triassic Parareptile Sauropareion anoplus, with a Discussion of Possible Life History

The phylogenetic analysis of the Procolophonoidea is consonant with previous work, positing S. anoplus as the sister taxon to a clade composed of all other procolophonids exclusive of Coletta seca.

A new, nearly complete skull of Procolophon trigoniceps Owen, 1876 from the Sanga do Cabral Supersequence, Lower Triassic of Southern Brazil, with phylogenetic remarks

ABSTRACT The Sanga do Cabral Supersequence comprises the Sanga do Cabral and the Buena Vista formations from Brazil and Uruguay respectivelly. The Brazilian unit yields an abundant record of the

A procolophonid reptile from the Lower Triassic of Australia

A new procolophonid reptile from the Lower Triassic Arcadia Formation of Queensland, Australia is described on the basis of abundant cranial and postcranial remains, and its dentition suggests good capabilities of oral processing and shows instances of replacement.

Thecodont tooth attachment and replacement in bolosaurid parareptiles

The size and complex shape of the replacement teeth in the holotype of Bolosaurus grandis indicate that the replacement tooth can develop within the pulp cavity to an advanced stage while the previous generation remains functional for an extended time, reminiscent of the condition seen in other amniotes with occluding dentitions, including mammals.

A Review of Tooth Implantation Among Rhynchocephalians (Lepidosauria)

The presence of Ankylosphenodon from the early Cretaceous of Mexico demonstrates that at least some later rhynchocephalians possessed continually replacing dentition, but identification of this trait requires inspection of internal anatomy.

A Possible New Specimen of Ruhuhuaria reiszi from the Manda Beds (?Middle Triassic) of Southern Tanzania and Its Implications for Small Sauropsids in the Triassic

The dentition of UMZC T1162 is better preserved than that of the holotype and shows that the more posterior teeth of this animal were chisel-shaped rather than pointed, and that small Triassic sauropsids had more variation in their tooth implantation and tooth disparity than previously appreciated.

Mandaphon nadra, gen. et sp. nov., a New Procolophonid from the Manda Beds of Tanzania

  • L. A. Tsuji
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
  • 2017
ABSTRACT A collaborative field work program in the Triassic of Tanzania and Zambia has produced a plethora of new fossil material. Parareptiles, however, are rare, with only one procolophonoid

The first record of a nyctiphruretid parareptile from the Early Permian of North America, with a discussion of parareptilian temporal fenestration

The Richards Spur Locality of Oklahoma, USA, long known for its highly diverse Early Permian terrestrial tetrapod assemblage, is particularly interesting for the presence of many endemic taxa. The

Plicidentine in the Early Permian Parareptile Colobomycter pholeter, and Its Phylogenetic and Functional Significance among Coeval Members of the Clade

It is hypothesized that one function of parareptilian plicidentine is to increase the surface area for attachment tissues, and it is suggested that the use of plicIDENTine as a character in phylogenetic analyses of pararptiles may be misleading.

An early‐diverging procolophonid from the lowermost Triassic of South America and the origins of herbivory in Procolophonoidea

Procolophonoidea was the only parareptile clade to survive the end‐Permian mass extinction, and they experienced a major adaptive radiation during the Triassic. The flourishing of procolophonoid



Cranial anatomy of the primitive reptile Procolophon

It is concluded that this genus had a large tympanum supported by the supratemporal, squamosal, and quadratojugal, which probably functioned as part of an impedance-matching system comparable with that of modern lizards.


A new phylogenetics analysis of Procolophonoidea, incorporating new phylogenetic characters from other studies, confirms the position of S. anoplus as the sister taxon of a clade comprising all procolophonoids exclusive of Coletta seca and Owenettidae and Procolophonidae are now sister taxa.

A New and Unusual Procolophonid Parareptile from the Lower Triassic Katberg Formation of South Africa

Phonodus dutoitorum is the fifth procolophonoid species to be described from the Induan of the Karoo Basin, providing further support for the hypothesis that procolophoneoid evolution was not greatly perturbed by the end-Permian extinction event.

A Reappraisal Of Coletta Seca, A Basal Procolophonoid Reptile From The Lower Triassic Of South Africa

A phylogenetic analysis identifies Coletta as the sister taxon of the clade Procolophonidae, and suggests that Procolophonoidea originated and diversified initially in Gondwana during the Permian, prior to ProColophonidae achieving a cosmopolitan distribution in the succeeding Triassic.

A new procolophonid from the Upper Triassic of Texas, with a description of tooth replacement and implantation

ABSTRACT A new procolophonid, Libognathus sheddi, gen. et sp. nov. is reported from the Cooper Canyon Formation (Dockum Group; Upper Triassic: lower Norian) near Post, Texas. This is the first

The Osteology and Affinities of Anomoiodon liliensterni, A Procolophonid Reptile from the Lower Triassic Bundsandstein of Germany

The procolophonid reptile Anomoiodon liliensterni was found in the Triassic Bundsandstein of Thuringia, Germany, from the lower layers of the Chirotherium sandstone horizon in the sum mer of 1937 by


Early Triassic disarticulated bones from karst deposits at Czatkowice 1, southern Poland, are assigned to a procolophonine species Procolina teresae gen. tereae, characterized by a small adult size, unicuspid tooth crowns, and a derived heterodont dentition.

Alpha Taxonomy of the Russian Permian Procolophonoid Reptiles

Re-examination indicates that Suchonosaurus is a member of the procolophonoid subfamily Procolophonidae based on the shape of the maxillary bone and the external naris, the laterally visible maxillary depression, and the number and type of maxillary teeth, and re-examination of the holotype of MicroPHon exiguus confirms that it is identical to the seymouriamorph specimens recently included in the genus Microphon.

The dentition of agamid lizards with special reference to tooth replacement

The dentition of the African lizard Agama agama was examined in a range of material from late embryos and hatchlings to individuals of advanced age and a connection suggested between polyphyodent reptilian dentitions and the diphyodont mammalian dentition.


Abstract Based primarily on two previously undescribed skulls, this paper presents a detailed description of the skull and mandible of the latest Triassic procolophonid reptile Hypsognathus fenneri