New Findings on Extinction of Conditioned Fear Early in Development: Theoretical and Clinical Implications

@article{Kim2010NewFO,
  title={New Findings on Extinction of Conditioned Fear Early in Development: Theoretical and Clinical Implications},
  author={Jee Hyun Kim and Rick Richardson},
  journal={Biological Psychiatry},
  year={2010},
  volume={67},
  pages={297-303}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Impaired Extinction Retention in Adolescent Rats: Effects of D-Cycloserine
TLDR
It is shown that adolescent rats exhibit impaired extinction retention, and that this can be reduced through either DCS or extended extinction training, and these novel findings have potential implications for clinical treatments of fear and anxiety disorders in adolescent patients.
Extinction in preweanling rats does not involve NMDA receptors
Maternal separation results in early emergence of adult-like fear and extinction learning in infant rats.
TLDR
It is found that young animals exposed to maternal-separation were more likely to exhibit context- and stress-mediated relapse after extinction than standard-reared animals, and this suggests that early life adversity may prepare young animals to respond more cautiously toward fear signals in their environment.
Spontaneous recovery from extinction in the infant rat
Extinction, reacquisition, and rapid forgetting of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats.
TLDR
Findings indicate that forgetting is observed in P17 relative to P24 rats 24 h following acquisition, which has important implications for the neurobiological mechanisms of memory in the developing cerebellum.
A dissociation between renewal and contextual fear conditioning in juvenile rats
TLDR
The results indicate that the developmental dissociation observed in renewal of extinguished fear is not related to the widely believed late emergence of contextual fear learning.
Reinstatement of an extinguished fear conditioned response in infant rats.
TLDR
The possibility of recovering an extinguished CR with a reinstatement procedure in a fear conditioning paradigm is analyzed, while exploring the role of the olfactory content of the context upon the reinstatement effect during the preweanling period, supporting the notion that extinction during infancy has the same characteristics as those described for extinction that occurs in adulthood.
Context fear learning and renewal of extinguished fear are dissociated in juvenile female rats.
TLDR
The findings suggest that the ability to form contextual fear memory is unrelated to the expression of renewal in juvenile female rats.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES
Fear Extinction across Development: The Involvement of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex as Assessed by Temporary Inactivation and Immunohistochemistry
TLDR
Findings show that extinction in P17 rats does not involve the mPFC, which has important theoretical and clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders in humans.
Extinction in the developing rat: an examination of renewal effects.
TLDR
Results show that whether or not context regulates the expression of an ambiguous memory is determined by the animal's age when the memory becomes ambiguous.
A developmental dissociation of context and GABA effects on extinguished fear in rats.
TLDR
Using Pavlovian fear conditioning, the authors provide evidence for developmental differences in extinction, and it appears that there are fundamental differences in the processes involved in extinction across development.
The effect of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on extinction of conditioned fear in the developing rat.
TLDR
The involvement of the endogenous opioid system in extinction in the developing rat using systemic injections of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone indicates that opioid neurotransmission, in contrast to GABA and NMDA activity, is critical for extinction acquisition across development.
Extinction of fear-potentiated startle: blockade by infusion of an NMDA antagonist into the amygdala
TLDR
The results show that infusion of the NMDA antagonist D,L-2- amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) into the amygdala, a limbic structure known to be important for fear conditioning, dose-dependently blocked extinction of conditioned fear and suggest that an NMDA-dependent process might underlie the extinction of Conditioned fear.
A developmental dissociation in compound summation following extinction
Experimental extinction in Pavlovian conditioning: Behavioural and neuroscience perspectives
  • A. Delamater
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. B, Comparative and physiological psychology
  • 2004
TLDR
This paper reviews the behavioural and neuroscience literatures on extinction in Pavlovian conditioning and concludes that both levels of analysis can benefit the other in the pursuit of a more comprehensive understanding of extinction.
Hippocampal Inactivation Disrupts Contextual Retrieval of Fear Memory after Extinction
TLDR
Findings from other behavioral paradigms are extended and provided additional support for a role for the hippocampus in contextual memory retrieval by examining the impact of reversible inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus on the context-specific expression of extinction.
...
...