019 In wealthy countries, state-funded research has yielded breakthroughs in molecular biology, chemistry, and engineering. These advances have been taken up by the pharmaceutical industry and applied to drug development for a growing range of illnesses and conditions. As a result, patients have access to new drugs that are better tolerated, more specifi c, and more effective than old ones. In poor countries, however, millions of people have yet to experience the benefi ts wrought by science. The deadly infectious diseases that plague them, such as sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and visceral leishmaniasis, fail to arouse the interest of drug developers. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi) is a new, not-for-profi t organisation set up to correct this fatal imbalance by developing new drugs for these forgotten patients.