Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun

  title={Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun},
  author={Gianpaolo Bellini and Jay B. Benziger and Daniel Bick and Giuseppe Bonfini and David Bravo and M. Buizza Avanzini and Barbara Caccianiga and Laura Cadonati and Frank P. Calaprice and Carlo Carraro and Paolo Cavalcante and Alvaro Chavarria and Alexander Chepurnov and Viacheslav Chubakov and D. D’Angelo and Stefano Davini and Alexander Derbin and A. V. {\'E}tenko and Kirill Fomenko and D. Franco and Cristiano Galbiati and S. Gazzana and Chiara Ghiano and Marco Giammarchi and Marianne G{\"o}ger-Neff and Augusto Goretti and Luca Grandi and Elena Guardincerri and Steve Hardy and Al. Ianni and Andrea Ianni and V. V. Kobychev and Denis Korablev and George Korga and Yusuke Koshio and D. Kryn and Matthias Laubenstein and Timo Lewke and Marcello Lissia and Evgeny Litvinovich and B. Loer and Francesco Lombardi and Paolo Lombardi and Livia Ludhova and I. N. Machulin and Szymon Manecki and W. Maneschg and Giulio Manuzio and Q. Meindl and Emanuela Meroni and Lino Miramonti and M. Misiaszek and Davide Montanari and Pablo Mosteiro and Fabio Mantovani and Viktorina N. Muratova and Stefano Nisi and Lothar Oberauer and Michel Obolensky and Fausto Ortica and K. Otis and Marco Pallavicini and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Papp and Laura Perasso and S. Perasso and Andrea Pocar and G. Ranucci and Alessandro Razeto and Alessandra Carlotta Re and Aldo Romani and Nicola Rossi and A. A. Sabelnikov and R. Saldanha and C. Araya Salvo and Stefan Sch{\"o}nert and Hardy Simgen and Mikhail Skorokhvatov and O. Ju. Smirnov and Albert Sotnikov and S. V. Sukhotin and Yura Suvorov and Roberto Tartaglia and Gemma Testera and Robert Bruce Vogelaar and F. v. Feilitzsch and Juergen Winter and Mariusz W{\'o}jcik and Alex Wright and Michael Wurm and Gerti Xhixha and J. Xu and Oleg Antonovich Zaimidoroga and S Zavatarelli and Grzegorz Zuzel},
In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun’s energy and… 

Neutrino physics: What makes the Sun shine

Observations of the proton–proton or pp neutrinos themselves are reported, providing a direct view of the principal fusion process that powers the Sun.

Measurement of neutrino flux from the primary proton--proton fusion process in the Sun with Borexino detector

Neutrino produced in a chain of nuclear reactions in the Sun starting from the fusion of two protons, for the first time has been detected in a real-time detector in spectrometric mode. The unique

Comprehensive measurement of pp-chain solar neutrinos

All components of the proton–proton nuclear fusion chain, in which hydrogen is converted into helium in the Sun, are described, with several implications for fundamental solar and particle physics.

Detection of MeV scale neutrinos and the solar energy paradigm

The fundamental solar energy paradigm establishes that the energy in the Sun is due to a series of nuclear reactions which turn hydrogen into helium. In particular, for the Sun the fundamental

Low-Energy Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

Stellar evolution, the theory of how stars evolve, relies on observations of many stars of different masses, colors, ages, and chemical composition. The energy of stars is provided by nuclear fusion

First real–time detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

Solar neutrinos have been pivotal to the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations and are a unique tool to probe the reactions that keep the Sun shine. Although most of solar neutrino components

The study of the Sun and of the Earth with neutrino probes

Astrophysicists have been tracking high-energy particles from space for decades. But neutrinos are different: since they are neutral particles, they travel in a straight line, unaffected by the

Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity



Measurement of the Solar Electron Neutrino Flux with the Homestake Chlorine Detector

The Homestake Solar Neutrino Detector, based on the inverse beta-decay reaction νe +37Cl →37Ar + e-, has been measuring the flux of solar neutrinos since 1970. The experiment has operated in a stable

Solar Neutrinos: Status and Prospects

We describe the current status of solar neutrino measurements and of the theory—both neutrino physics and solar astrophysics—employed in interpreting measurements. Important recent developments

Solar neutrinos, helioseismology and the solar internal dynamics

Neutrinos are fundamental particles ubiquitous in the Universe and whose properties remain elusive despite more than 50 years of intense research activity. This review illustrates the importance of

Direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux with 192 days of borexino data.

This result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar nu(e) in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations and improves the experimental determination of the flux of 7Be, pp, and CNO solarnu(e), and the limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment using solar neutrinos.

First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino

The observed solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range represents the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutRino flux to date.

Does the sun shine by pp or CNO fusion reactions?

We show that solar neutrino experiments set an upper limit of 7.8% (7.3% including the recent KamLAND measurements) to the fraction of energy that the Sun produces via the CNO fusion cycle, which is

Solar models with helium and heavy-element diffusion

Helium and heavy-element diffusion are both included in precise calculations of solar models. In addition, improvements in the input data for solar interior models are described for nuclear reaction

Solar neutrinos: Radiative corrections in neutrino-electron scattering experiments.

Radiative corrections to the electron recoil-energy spectra and to total cross sections are computed for neutrino-electron scattering by solid neutrinos and the recoil spectra from 13N and 15O neutrines are calculated including radiative corrections.