Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun

  title={Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun},
  author={Gianpaolo Bellini and Jay B. Benziger and Daniel Bick and Giuseppe Bonfini and David Bravo and M. Buizza Avanzini and Barbara Caccianiga and Laura Cadonati and Frank P. Calaprice and Carlo Carraro and Paolo Cavalcante and Alvaro E. Chavarria and Alexander Chepurnov and Viacheslav Chubakov and D. D’Angelo and Stefano Davini and Alexander Derbin and A. V. {\'E}tenko and Kirill Fomenko and D. Franco and Cristiano Galbiati and S. Gazzana and Chiara Ghiano and Marco Giammarchi and Marianne G{\"o}ger-Neff and Augusto Goretti and Luca Grandi and Elena Guardincerri and Steve Hardy and Al. Ianni and Andrea Ianni and V. V. Kobychev and Denis Korablev and George Korga and Yusuke Koshio and D. Kryn and Matthias Laubenstein and Timo Lewke and Marcello Lissia and Evgeny Litvinovich and B. Loer and Francesco Lombardi and Paolo Lombardi and Livia Ludhova and I. N. Machulin and Szymon Manecki and W. Maneschg and Giulio Manuzio and Q. Meindl and Emanuela Meroni and Lino Miramonti and M. Misiaszek and Davide Montanari and Pablo Mosteiro and Fabio Mantovani and Viktorina N. Muratova and Stefano Nisi and Lothar Oberauer and Michel Obolensky and Fausto Ortica and K. Otis and Marco Pallavicini and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Papp and Laura Perasso and S. Perasso and Andrea Pocar and G. Ranucci and Alessandro Razeto and Alessandra Carlotta Re and Aldo Romani and Nicola Rossi and A. A. Sabelnikov and R. Saldanha and C. Araya Salvo and Stefan Sch{\"o}nert and Hardy Simgen and Mikhail Skorokhvatov and O. Ju. Smirnov and Albert Sotnikov and S. V. Sukhotin and Yura Suvorov and Roberto Tartaglia and Gemma Testera and Robert Bruce Vogelaar and F. v. Feilitzsch and Juergen Winter and Mariusz W{\'o}jcik and Alex Wright and Michael Wurm and Gerti Xhixha and J. Xu and Oleg Antonovich Zaimidoroga and S Zavatarelli and Grzegorz Zuzel},
In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun’s energy and… 

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