Neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the giant Australian stinging tree

  title={Neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the giant Australian stinging tree},
  author={Edward K. Gilding and Sina Jami and Jennifer R. Deuis and Mathilde R. Israel and Peta J. Harvey and Aaron G. Poth and Fabian B. H. Rehm and Jennifer L. Stow and Samuel D. Robinson and Kuok Yap and Darren L. Brown and Brett R. Hamilton and David A. Andersson and David J. Craik and Irina Vetter and Thomas Durek},
  journal={Science Advances},
The pain-inducing components of Australian stinging tree venom are miniproteins that modulate voltage-gated sodium channels. Stinging trees from Australasia produce remarkably persistent and painful stings upon contact of their stiff epidermal hairs, called trichomes, with mammalian skin. Dendrocnide-induced acute pain typically lasts for several hours, and intermittent painful flares can persist for days and weeks. Pharmacological activity has been attributed to small-molecule… 

Neurotoxic and cytotoxic peptides underlie the painful stings of the tree nettle Urtica ferox

Pain-causing stinging nettle toxins target TMEM233 to modulate NaV1.7 function

It is shown that TMEM233, a member of the dispanin family of transmembrane proteins expressed in sensory neurons, is essential for pharmacological activity of ExTxA at Na_V channels, and that co-expression of TMEM 233 modulates the gating properties of Na-V1.7.7-interacting protein.

Design of a Stable Cyclic Peptide Analgesic Derived from Sunflower Seeds that Targets the κ-Opioid Receptor for the Treatment of Chronic Abdominal Pain

This study provides a proof of principle that cyclic peptides from plants may be used as templates to develop potent and stable peptide analgesics applicable via enteric administration by targeting the peripheral KOR for the treatment of chronic abdominal pain.

Distribution, Ecology, Chemistry and Toxicology of Plant Stinging Hairs

The physiological effects of stinging hairs on humans vary widely between stinging plants and range from a slight itch, skin rash, and oedema to sharp pain and even serious neurological disorders such as neuropathy.

Stinging Trichomes in Apocynaceae and Their Evolution in Angiosperms

The glandular trichomes in Fischeria and Matelea can indeed be classified as stinging, and Apocynaceae is the seventh family for which this type of trichome has been reported.

STRETCH: Stinging tree exposures to Cairns Hospital.

Investigating the treatment and response to treatment caused by exposure to stinging tree plants presenting to Cairns Hospital over a 3-year period found pain is immediate and severe and there are no clear first aid or definitive treatment recommendations.

Fitness of evolving bacterial populations is contingent on deep and shallow history but only shallow history creates predictable patterns

It is found that deep and shallow phylogenetic histories both contributed significantly to differences in evolved fitness, though by different amounts in different selection environments, consistent with adaptive evolution being contingent on the interaction of several evolutionary forces.

Climate influence on organic carbon burial efficiency as revealed from a multi-proxy lake sediment record in Croatia

The drivers of the efficiency in organic carbon (OC) burial are still poorly understood despite their key role in reliable projections of future climate trends. Here we shed new light on this quest...

Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a

The results suggest that in inflammatory models, acute administration of peripherally restricted NaV1.7 inhibitors can only produce analgesia when administered in combination with an opioid.

A comprehensive portrait of the venom of the giant red bull ant, Myrmecia gulosa, reveals a hyperdiverse hymenopteran toxin gene family

The first comprehensive characterization of a polypeptidic ant venom, that of the giant red bull ant, Myrmecia gulosa, is provided, revealing a suite of novel peptides with a range of posttranslational modifications, including disulfide bond formation, dimerization, and glycosylation.

Identification of oxalic acid and tartaric acid as major persistent pain-inducing toxins in the stinging hairs of the nettle, Urtica thunbergiana.

Oxalic acid and tartaric acid were identified, for the first time, as major long-lasting pain-inducing toxins in the stinging hairs of U. thunbergiana.

Multiple sodium channel isoforms mediate the pathological effects of Pacific ciguatoxin-1

Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, which reflects the expression pattern of NaV isoforms in peripheral sensory neurons and their contribution to membrane depolarisation, action potential initiation and propagation.

Analgesic treatment of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia

Structure of a Novel P-superfamily Spasmodic Conotoxin Reveals an Inhibitory Cystine Knot Motif* 210

The three-dimensional structure of gm9a is determined in aqueous solution and it is demonstrated that the molecule adopts the well known inhibitory cystine knot motif constrained by three disulfide bonds involving Cys2-Cys16, Cys6- Cys18and Cys12-CYS23.

Mechanism of action of stinging nettles.

Contact urticaria due to the common stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)—histological, ultrastructural and pharmacological studies

Results suggest that part of the immediate reaction to nettle stings is due to histamine introduced by the nettle, but the persistence of the stinging sensation might suggest the presence of substances in nettle fluid directly toxic to nerves or capable of secondary release of other mediators.

Poisons, toxungens, and venoms: redefining and classifying toxic biological secretions and the organisms that employ them

Despite extensive study of poisonous and venomous organisms and the toxins they produce, a review of the literature reveals inconsistency and ambiguity in the definitions of ‘poison’ and ‘venom’.

Irritant and Defense Substances of Higher Plants—A Chemical Herbarium

In this botanical documentation, not only the individual chemicals are considered in context but also whole sets of interacting substances, since it is only in these sets that optimal activity is found (just as one considers not just the parts of a plant but also the whole plant in botany).