Neurostimulation Devices for Cognitive Enhancement: Toward a Comprehensive Regulatory Framework

  title={Neurostimulation Devices for Cognitive Enhancement: Toward a Comprehensive Regulatory Framework},
  author={Veljko Dubljevi{\'c}},
There is mounting evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation devices - transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be used for cognitive enhancement. However, the regulatory environment surrounding such uses of stimulation devices is less clear than for stimulant drugs—a fact that has already been commercially exploited by several companies. In this paper, the mechanism of action, uses and adverse effects of non-invasive neurostimulation… 

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Transcranial direct current stimulation

It is concluded that tDCS is a promising tool for enhancing the ability to handle self-other representations and of the factors that may affect the likelihood of tDCS effects.

The regulation of cognitive enhancement devices: extending the medical model

A model for regulating cognitive enhancement devices is presented and the case for extending existing medical device legislation to cover CEDs is presented, highlighting potential challenges to its implementation, and suggesting solutions.

Physiological Basis of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

  • C. StaggM. Nitsche
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2011
The authors bring together the results from these pharmacological, neurophysiological, and imaging studies to describe their current knowledge of the physiological effects of tDCS, and the theoretical framework for how tDCS affects motor learning is proposed.

Rethinking the thinking cap

The ethical problems that affect the practice of cosmetic neurology are characterized, including safety, character, justice, and autonomy, and how these problems may apply to the use of noninvasive brain stimulation for self-enhancement are discussed.

The challenge of crafting policy for do-it-yourself brain stimulation

This paper provides practical recommendations designed to guide balanced discourse, propagate norms of safe use and stimulate dialogue between the DIY community and regulatory authorities, and calls on all stakeholders to share in crafting policy proposals that ensure public safety while supporting DIY innovation.