The authors draws attention to the problem of neuropsychological rehabilitation. He emphasizes the problem of exploiting the patient's experience during rehabilitation into practical life. He provides data on rehabilitation in vivo and in vitro. He reflects on the development of computer rehabilitation of cognitive functions from neuropsychological tests and presents some examples based on Scandinavian experience. The author also draws attention to his own experience with the neuropsychological computer programme TRAIN THE BRAIN and gives an account of the work with this programme. He recommends the use of computer programmes in psychological and neuropsychological practice. He emphasizes their possibilities in patients with traumatic brain damage and the possibility to follow up systematically changes during recovery which are difficult to record in written tests. Changes in recovery which were recorded by the computer programme frequently did not correspond with changes of the mental state of the patient. Rehabilitation computer programmes also enable to activate of psychiatric patients with performance disorders. The author emphasizes possibilities of neuropsychological rehabilitation and recommends its further development in the Czech Republic.