Thymosin β4 overexpression regulates neuron production and spatial distribution in the developing avian optic tectum
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. No effective pharmacological treatments are available for TBI because all phase II/III TBI clinical trials have failed. This highlights a compelling need to develop effective treatments for TBI. Endogenous neurorestoration occurs in the brain after TBI, including angiogenesis, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, and axonal remodeling, which may be associated with spontaneous functional recovery after TBI. However, the endogenous neurorestoration following TBI is limited. Treatments amplifying these neurorestorative processes may promote functional recovery after TBI. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells. In addition, Tβ4 has other properties including antiapoptosis and anti-inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis, wound healing, stem/progenitor cell differentiation, and cell migration and survival, which provide the scientific foundation for the corneal, dermal, and cardiac wound repair multicenter clinical trials. Here, we describe Tβ4 as a neuroprotective and neurorestorative candidate for treatment of TBI.