Neuroprotection against Traumatic Brain Injury by Xenon, but Not Argon, Is Mediated by Inhibition at the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Glycine Site

@article{Harris2013NeuroprotectionAT,
  title={Neuroprotection against Traumatic Brain Injury by Xenon, but Not Argon, Is Mediated by Inhibition at the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Glycine Site},
  author={Katie Harris and Scott P Armstrong and Rita Campos-Pires and Louise Kiru and Nicholas P. Franks and Robert Dickinson},
  journal={Anesthesiology},
  year={2013},
  volume={119},
  pages={1137–1148}
}
Background: Xenon, the inert anesthetic gas, is neuroprotective in models of brain injury. The authors investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of the inert gases such as xenon, argon, krypton, neon, and helium in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. Methods: The authors use an in vitro model using mouse organotypic hippocampal brain slices, subjected to a focal mechanical trauma, with injury quantified by propidium iodide fluorescence. Patch clamp electrophysiology is used to… 
Xenon-mediated neuroprotection in response to sustained, low-level excitotoxic stress
TLDR
It is demonstrated for the first time that xenon may have a therapeutic potential in AD by demonstrating the protective potential of these two gases under conditions relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders.
Argon attenuates the emergence of secondary injury after traumatic brain injury within a 2-hour incubation period compared to desflurane: an in vitro study
TLDR
It is demonstrated that within a 2-hour incubation time neither argon nor desflurane could affect propidium iodide-detectable cell death in an in vitro TBI model in comparison to the standard atmosphere, although cell death was less with argon 50% than with desflorane 6%.
Neuroprotective Effects of the Inert Gas Argon on Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury In Vivo with the Controlled Cortical Impact Model in Mice
TLDR
Whether argon beneficially impacts brain contusion volume (BCV) as the primary outcome parameter, as well as secondary outcome parameters, such as brain edema, intracranial pressure (ICP), neurological outcome, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in an in-vivo model is shown.
Neuroprotective properties of xenon in traumatic brain injury.
TLDR
The effects of xenon treatment on logical and behavioral tests of neurological function in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are investigated and the potential role for xenon as a neuroprotectant is studied.
Xenon Protects against Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in an In Vitro Model
TLDR
It is demonstrated for the first time that xenon treatment after blast traumatic brain injury reduces initial injury and prevents subsequent injury development in vitro, supporting the idea that Xenon may be a potential first-line treatment for those with blast-induced traumatic brain injuries.
Xenon Reduces Neuronal Hippocampal Damage and Alters the Pattern of Microglial Activation after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Randomized Controlled Animal Trial
TLDR
Examination of xenon’s possible effect in attenuating early brain injury and its influence on posthemorrhagic microglial neuroinflammation in an in vivo rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage finds a less pronounced neuronal damage was observed for the ipsilateral hippocampal regions CA3 and DG, when compared to the control group.
The noble gas xenon provides protection and trophic stimulation to midbrain dopamine neurons
TLDR
Overall, present data indicate that xenon can provide protection and trophic support to DA neurons that are vulnerable in Parkinson's disease, suggesting that Xenon might have some therapeutic value for this disorder.
Argon Inhalation for 24 h After Closed-Head Injury Does not Improve Recovery, Neuroinflammation, or Neurologic Outcome in Mice
TLDR
While neuroprotective in predominately ischemic injury, argon did not provide protection after TBI in this model, highlighting the crucial importance of assessing argon’s strengths and weaknesses in preclinical models to fully understand its organ protective potential in different pathologies and gas mixtures.
The Molecular Pathway of Argon-Mediated Neuroprotection
TLDR
The aim of this review is to summarize the known parts of the molecular pathways and to combine them to provide a clear insight into the cellular pathway, starting with the receptors that may be involved in mediating argon effects and ending with the translational response.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Effects of Xenon on In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Neuronal Injury
TLDR
Xenon exerts a concentration-dependent neuroprotective effect at concentrations below which anesthesia is produced in rodents, unlike either nitrous oxide or ketamine, which are devoid of both neurotoxicity and clinically significant adverse hemodynamic properties.
The neuroprotective effects of xenon and helium in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury*
TLDR
Xenon was particularly effective at reducing the secondary injury that developed following the initial trauma and could be administered at least 3 hrs postinjury with only a small reduction in efficacy.
Argon: Neuroprotection in in vitro models of cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury
TLDR
Argon showed a neuroprotective effect in both in vitro models of oxygen-glucose deprivation and traumatic brain injury, and this results justify further in vivo animal research.
Xenon provides short-term neuroprotection in neonatal rats when administered after hypoxia-ischemia.
TLDR
Three hours of xenon administration commenced after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats provides short-term neuroprotection, suggesting that treatment with xenon after perinatal asphyxia would also be neuroprotective.
Competitive Inhibition at the Glycine Site of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Mediates Xenon Neuroprotection against Hypoxia–Ischemia
TLDR
It is shown that xenon neuroprotection against hypoxia– ischemia can be reversed by increasing the glycine concentration, consistent with competitive inhibition by xenon at the NMDA receptor glycine site, playing a significant role in xenon Neuroprotection.
Neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties of the 'inert' gas, xenon.
TLDR
Uniquely amongst anaesthetics with known NMDA receptor antagonist action, xenon exhibits neuroprotective properties without co-existing neurotoxicity.
Ex Vivo and In Vivo Neuroprotection Induced by Argon When Given after an Excitotoxic or Ischemic Insult
TLDR
The findings on postischemic argon suggest that this noble gas could be administered during but not after ischemia, in order to provide cortical neuroprotection and to avoid increasing subcortical brain damage.
Neuroprotective effects of argon in an in vivo model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats*
Objective: The neuroprotective effects of the noble gas xenon are well known. Argon, in contrast to xenon, is abundant, inexpensive, and therefore widely applicable. In this study, we analyzed the
Neuroprotection targets after traumatic brain injury
TLDR
The good news is that the authors are closer to finding one or more methods for treating traumatic brain injury patients, and a treatment generating some controversy, but showing potential, is the application of hypothermia to the patients.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...