A theoretical framework for cognitive and non-cognitive interventions for older adults: stimulation versus compensation.
Anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies implicate extrastriate cortex as a major contributor to the sparing of visually guided behaviors following lesions of primary visual cortex incurred early in life. Here we report considerable sparing of the ability to detect and localize stimuli in the hemifield contralateral to unilateral early lesions of all contiguous visually-responsive primary and extrastriate cortical regions (occipital, visuoparietal, and visuotemporal cortices). In the adult cat this same lesion induces a dense blindness and cats are unable to orient to any visual stimulus introduced into the contralesional hemifield. In the absence of cortical circuits, the neural sparing identified following the neonatal lesion is based on the superior colliculus and it occurs despite massive retrograde transynaptic degeneration of large numbers of retinal ganglion cells.