Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training

  title={Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training},
  author={Bogdan Draganski and Christian Gaser and Volker Busch and Gerhard Schuierer and Ulrich Bogdahn and Arne May},
Does the structure of an adult human brain alter in response to environmental demands? Here we use whole-brain magnetic-resonance imaging to visualize learning-induced plasticity in the brains of volunteers who have learned to juggle. We find that these individuals show a transient and selective structural change in brain areas that are associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion. This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure… 

Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain

It is shown that learning a second language increases the density of grey matter in the left inferior parietal cortex and that the degree of structural reorganization in this region is modulated by the proficiency attained and the age at acquisition.

Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the adult human brain

  • A. May
  • Psychology, Biology
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2011

Structural brain alterations following 5 days of intervention: dynamic aspects of neuroplasticity.

This work shows that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the superior temporal cortex causes macroscopic cortical changes in gray matter in the auditory cortex as early as within 5 days of continuous intervention, and suggests that cortical plasticity on a structural level in adult humans is already detectable after 1 week.

Structural and functional neuroplasticity in human learning of spatial routes

Plasticity in gray and white: neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning

Human brain imaging findings of structural plasticity are reviewed and cellular and molecular level changes that could underlie observed imaging effects are discussed, to facilitate cross-talk between cellular and systems level explanations of how learning sculpts brain structure.

Changes in Gray Matter Induced by Learning—Revisited

It is suggested that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task) is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task.

Training induces changes in white matter architecture

Using diffusion imaging, a localized increase in fractional anisotropy is detected in white matter underlying the intraparietal sulcus following training of a complex visuo-motor skill, the first evidence for training-related changes in white-matter structure in the healthy human adult brain.

Training-induced structural changes in the adult human brain




Long-term in vivo imaging of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in adult cortex

The measurements suggest that sensory experience drives the formation and elimination of synapses and that these changes might underlie adaptive remodelling of neural circuits.

Mapping of Contralateral Space in Retinotopic Coordinates by a Parietal Cortical Area in Humans

The internal organization of a higher level visual area in the human parietal cortex was mapped and it was found that this region may correspond to the lateral intraparietal area in macaque monkeys.

The multiple roles of visual cortical areas MT/MST in remembering the direction of visual motion.

It was found that the effects of MT/MST lesions on specific components depended upon the demands of the task and the nature of the visual motion stimuli, and when the stimulus was coherent and the emphasis of thetask was on the comparison of small direction differences, the absence of MT-MST had major impact on the retrieval/comparison component of the Task and not on encoding or storage.

Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers.

  • E. MaguireD. Gadian C. Frith
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
Structural MRIs of the brains of humans with extensive navigation experience, licensed London taxi drivers, were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects who did not drive taxis, finding a capacity for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands.

Neuroplasticity in old age: Sustained fivefold induction of hippocampal neurogenesis by long‐term environmental enrichment

In mice signs of neuronal aging can be diminished by a sustained active and challenging life, even if this stimulation started only at medium age, because activity exerts not only an acute but also a sustained effect on brain plasticity.

Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex

It is shown that filopodia-like dendritic protrusions, extending and retracting over hours, are abundant in young animals but virtually absent from the adult, providing a potential structural basis for long-term information storage.

Automatic Differentiation of Anatomical Patterns in the Human Brain: Validation with Studies of Degenerative Dementias

The automated technique detects a general trend of atrophy similar to that of expertly labeled ROI measurements in AD and SD, although there are discrepancies in the ranking of severity and in the significance of volume reductions that are more marked in AD.

Hypothalamic gray matter changes in narcoleptic patients

Although it is suggested that geldanamycin is acting by upregulating or otherwise modulating molecular chaperone activity, the drug may also be modulating other pathways regulated by Hsp90, these studies have revealed a drug that can fully protect against the toxicity of α-synuclein to dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila.

Voxel-Based Morphometry—The Methods

At its simplest, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local concentration of gray matter between two groups of subjects. The procedure is relatively straightforward


Despite the daunting title, thi5 latest in the admirable 'Mind and Medicine' series is almost as read' able as it is instructive. What is psychopharmacology Not, or anyway not only, as I ha<j vaguely