Neurophysiology and neural engineering: a review.

  title={Neurophysiology and neural engineering: a review.},
  author={Arthur Prochazka},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  volume={118 2},
  • A. Prochazka
  • Published 1 August 2017
  • Biology
  • Journal of neurophysiology
Neurophysiology is the branch of physiology concerned with understanding the function of neural systems. Neural engineering (also known as neuroengineering) is a discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties and functions of neural systems. In most cases neural engineering involves the development of an interface between electronic devices and living neural tissue. This review describes the… 

Tables from this paper

Neural engineering: the process, applications, and its role in the future of medicine
The task, as neural engineers, is to push technology forward at the intersection of disciplines, while responsibly considering the readiness to transition this technology outside of the laboratory to consumer products.
Motor Neuroprostheses.
This chapter deals with the technical aspects of NMES, the therapeutic and functional benefits of TES and FES, delayed-onset and carryover effects attributable to "neuromodulation" and the barriers and opportunities in this rapidly developing field.
Biointegrated and Wirelessly Powered Implantable Brain Devices: A Review
Biocompatibility and design approaches for developing biointegrated and wirelessly powered implantable neural devices in animals aimed at long-term neural interfacing are reviewed and current challenges toward developing the next generation of implantable Neural modulating devices are outlined.
Multisite Simultaneous Neural Recording of Motor Pathway in Free-Moving Rats
A system with various electrodes capable of recording a large spectrum of electrophysiological signals from the cortex, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles of freely moving animals is built and can provide data to support previously inaccessible research of neural injury, rehabilitation, brain-inspired computing, and fundamental neuroscience.
“ on-chip” methods for research open another vast field to investigate the interesting interactions with or within biology, and a new approach in biomedical research aims to perceive the larger picture by putting all pieces together from the level of organism, tissue, cell, and subcellular organelle to molecule.
E-Skins: Biomimetic Sensing and Encoding for Upper Limb Prostheses
This review will present the physiology of the receptors that encode tactile, thermal, nociceptive, and proprioceptive information and the state of the art in e-skin design and deployment in closed-loop applications that demonstrate the benefits of sensory feedback for amputees.
Smart Rehabilitation for Neuro-Disability: A Review
Neurological disorders are increasing globally due to various factors such as change in lifestyle patterns as well as personal and professional stress. Scientists belonging to various research and
Trends of Multimodal Neural Engineering Study: A Bibliometric Review
A five-step bibliometric analysis based on the proposed multimodal neural engineering research framework (NE-MUL) generated a map of existing research findings with their relationship and provided future researchers with meaningful suggestions and assistance.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for assessing speech and spoken language processing in pediatric and adult cochlear implant users.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy can provide insight into processing factors that contribute to variations in spoken language outcomes in implant users, both children and adults, and future directions for using fNIRS as a tool to understand spoken language processing are considered.


Mechanisms of Electrical Stimulation with Neural Prostheses
Analysis with the generalized activating function, computer simulations of the nonlinear neural membrane behavior together with experimental and clinical data analysis enlighten the understanding of artificial firing patterns influenced by neural prostheses.
Neural Prostheses for Neurotrauma
The basic components and design of NPs and their mechanisms of action are considered, including the control of the urinary bladder, which is a major area of NP research and development.
Challenges and Opportunities in Restoring Function After Paralysis
Techniques that combine approaches are likely to be the most effective means for restoring function, for example combining regeneration and neural plasticity to maximize voluntary activity, combined with neural prostheses to augment the voluntary activity to functional levels of performance.
Restoring cortical control of functional movement in a human with quadriplegia
This is the first demonstration of successful control of muscle activation using intracortically recorded signals in a paralysed human, and has significant implications in advancing neuroprosthetic technology for people worldwide living with the effects of paralysis.
The neuromechanical tuning hypothesis.
Behavioral assessment of sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation of primate somatosensory cortex
The ability of monkeys to detect and discriminate trains of electrical pulses delivered to their somatosensory cortex through chronically implanted electrode arrays is investigated and it is shown that artificial touch is highly dependent on various features of the electrical stimuli.
Sensory control of normal movement and of movement aided by neural prostheses
In spite of the dissimilarities, parallels can be found between feedback control in neuroprostheses and in animals and this can provide surprising insights in both directions.
Using an Artificial Neural Bypass to Restore Cortical Control of Rhythmic Movements in a Human with Quadriplegia
An artificial neural bypass technology is shown that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement and a quadriplegic participant was able to initiate, sustain, and switch between rhythmic and discrete finger movements, using his thoughts alone.
Spinal Cord Microstimulation Generates Functional Limb Movements in Chronically Implanted Cats
It is demonstrated that microwires implanted in the spinal cord remain stably in place and stimulation through these electrodes produces strong, controllable movements, providing a promising basis for the use of spinal cord neuroprostheses in restoring mobility following spinal cord injury.