Neuropeptides shaping the central nervous system development: Spatiotemporal actions of VIP and PACAP through complementary signaling pathways

@article{Maduna2016NeuropeptidesST,
  title={Neuropeptides shaping the central nervous system development: Spatiotemporal actions of VIP and PACAP through complementary signaling pathways},
  author={Tando L. Maduna and Vincent Leli{\`e}vre},
  journal={Journal of Neuroscience Research},
  year={2016},
  volume={94}
}
Pituitary adenylate cyclase–activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are neuropeptides with wide, complementary, and overlapping distributions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they exert important regulatory roles in many physiological processes. VIP and PACAP display a large range of biological cellular targets and functions in the adult nervous system including regulation of neurotransmission and neuroendocrine secretion and neuroprotective… 

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TLDR
PACAP/VIP as well as their three classes of receptors are important in many physiological/pathophysiological processes, some of which are identified in these studies using knockout animals, which may lead to new novel treatment approaches.

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The existing nomenclature for these receptors is confirmed, the current understanding of their structure, pharmacology and functions and their likely physiological roles in health and disease are reviewed.

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Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro‐degenerative diseases.

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The results suggest that the PACAP and VIP have evolved to possess distinct biological activities and intimate that the respective knockout phenotypes represent deficits unmitigated by the actions of the complementary related peptide.

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TLDR
The present report reviews the current knowledge concerning the pleiotropic actions of PACAP and discusses its possible use for future therapeutic applications.

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TLDR
Although neuropeptides have been traditionally known as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, an emerging concept is that neuropePTides have important actions during development.

Characterization and distribution of binding sites for the hypothalamic peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.

TLDR
Results suggest that 1) a saturable, high affinity binding site for PACAP is present on anterior pituitary membranes; 2) PACAP27 and PACAP38, but not VIP, share this binding site in the anterior pituitsary and possibly the hypothalamus; and 3)PACAP27, PACAP 38, and VIP share a similar or identical binding site on lung membranes and possibly other peripheral tissues.

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TLDR
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