To better understand the complex structure and function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO), the occurrence and localization of nine neuropeptides, including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), bombesin, neuropeptide Y, peptide histidine-isoleucine (PHI), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin, substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin, were studied by immunohistochemical methods in the pig SO. The SO innervation was compared to gallbladder, common bile duct, and duodenal innervation. Specimens from the SO, gallbladder, common bile duct, and duodenum demonstrated a rich network of nerves, as suggested by light microscopy and confirmed by a myeline marker S-100. SO demonstrated very strong immunoreactivity for VIP, strong immunoreactivity for neuropeptide Y and galanin, moderate immunoreactivity for PHI and CGRP, and borderline immunoreactivity for bombesin and substance P. Serotonin and somatostatin immunoreactivity was also observed, not in the nerves, but in some of the epithelial cells. The gallbladder innervation was virtually identical to the SO innervation, whereas common bile duct and duodenal innervation were slightly different. To our knowledge this is the first time that galanin- and PHI-like immunoreactivities have been observed in the SO. Our observations suggest that these peptides, along with VIP, neuropeptide Y, and CGRP, might play a role in the neural control of biliary motility.