Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects

  title={Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects},
  author={Konrad Stolz and Christoph-R{\"u}diger von Bredow and Yvette M von Bredow and Reinhard Lakes-Harlan and Tina E. Trenczek and Johannes Strau{\ss}},
  journal={Frontiers in Zoology},
BackgroundStick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are under neuronal control from the CNS. The detailed neural innervation and possible differences between species are not studied so far. Using axonal tracing, the neuronal innervation is investigated comparing four species. The aim is to document the complexity of defence gland… 
Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System
The innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved mot oneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel suboesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervated the defense gland.
Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema
The hypothesis that in euphasmids, the muscular part of the gland evolved from the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles in all Polyneoptera also innervate the defence glands in phasmids is supported.
Morphology and histology of the defensive glands of stick insect, abrosoma johorensis
Observation on ultrastructure of the defensive gland was able to discover several components and organelle lies within the secretory epithelium region that might take part in the production of chemical secretion such as epithelial cells, pigment granules, ductules, vesicles, mitochondria, tracheols and secretory apparatus.
Directed chemical spray of the peppermint stick insect (Megacrania batesii) is induced when predation risk is at its highest
It is argued that waiting to spray upon contact potentially increases the likelihood of successively deterring predators and the need to establish a predation risk paradigm for the strategic deployment of chemical defences is highlighted.
When Giant Stick Insects Play With Colors: Molecular Phylogeny of the Achriopterini and Description of Two New Splendid Species (Phasmatodea: Achrioptera) From Madagascar
It is demonstrated that the well-known species with blue males from Montagne des Francais and Foret d'Orangea in the far north of Madagascar represents a new species, which is described as Achrioptera manga sp.


Suboesophageal neurons involved in head movements and feeding in locusts
  • J. Altman, J. Kien
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1979
The anatomical separation of the various sensory plexuses is indicative of functional localization within the ganglion and is interpreted as indicating a flow of information from labial receptors signalling head and mouthpart movement to neurons involved in salivation and head movement.
The aminergic and peptidergic innervation of insect salivary glands
  • Ali
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1997
This review serves to consolidate what is known of the phenotype of salivary neurones in relation to the control of salivation and identifies Serotonin and dopamine appear to be the most prominent amines associated with insect Salivary glands.
It is demonstrated in this study that a group of peripheral neurosecretory cells in crickets contains a peptide, and a function for this peptide is suggested and thus for an identified set of peripheral Neurosecretory neurones.
Crustacean cardioactive peptide in the nervous system of the locust, Locusta migratoria: an immunocytochemical study on the ventral nerve cord and peripheral innervation
A new in situ whole-mount technique was essential for elucidation of the peripheral pathways and targets of the identified neurons, which suggest a role of the peptide in the control of heartbeat, abdominal ventilatory and visceral muscle activity.
Sensory neuroanatomy of stick insects highlights the evolutionary diversity of the orthopteroid subgenual organ complex
The comparison of sensory structures indicates that elaborate scolopidial organs have evolved repeatedly among orthopteroids, and the distal organ in stick insects has the highest number of sensory neurons known for distal organs so far.
Motoneurons, DUM cells, and sensory neurons in an insect thoracic ganglion: A tracing study in the stick insect Carausius morosus
The general neuroanatomical layout of motoneurons matches the general orthopteran pattern and numbers and details of their structure by far exceed previously published data.
The Organization of Mechanosensory Neuropiles in Locust Thoracic Ganglia
The neuropilar areas of the thoracic ganglia of locusts in which projections from mechanoreceptors terminate are described and the relation of these neuropiles to known structures such as longitudinal tracts and commissures is illustrated.
Secret Weapons: Defenses of Insects, Spiders, Scorpions, and Other Many-Legged Creatures
This book is dominantly about chemical defences of terrestrial arthropods, though other types of defences (camouflage, catapulting, sticky traps) are also mentioned. Chapters are short, and typically
Morphology of locust neck muscle motoneurons and some of their inputs
  • J. Kien
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
The overlaps of the sensory afferents, interneurons and ‘activating’ interneurs with the motoneuron trees showed no clear localisation according to input type or function.
Mechanoresponsive neurones in the suboesophageal ganglion of the locust
It is suggested that the neurones may be active during food selection and ingestion in the locusts, given their particular patterns of input and arborizations.