Neurons in Rhesus Monkey Visual Cortex: Systematic Relation between Time of Origin and Eventual Disposition

  title={Neurons in Rhesus Monkey Visual Cortex: Systematic Relation between Time of Origin and Eventual Disposition},
  author={Pasko Raki{\'c}},
  pages={425 - 427}
  • P. Rakić
  • Published 1 February 1974
  • Biology
  • Science
Autoradiographic evidence after injection of tritiated thymidine indicates that cell position in the laminae of the monkey visual cortex is systematically related to time of cell orgin. The earliest-formed neurons, destined for the deepest stratum, arise at about embryonic day 45, and the last ones, destined for the outermost cell stratum, form at about day 102; cells of intervening layers are generated at intervening times. No neocortical neurons are produced in the last two prenatal months or… 

Genesis of Visual Connections in the Rhesus Monkey

The basic afferent connections of the visual system in the rhesus monkey are laid down before birth, although the process of segregation of terminals and synaptogenesis continue into postnatal period, which shows characteristically wedge-shaped and topographically organized by midgestation.

Prenatal development of the visual system in rhesus monkey.

  • P. Rakić
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1977
Results show that all neurons in the primate visual system have been generated, reached their final positions and formed their basic connections subserving ocular dominance before birth, i.e. before visual experience.

The genesis of efferent connections from the visual cortex of the fetal rhesus monkey

The prenatal development of the cortical projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC) and pulvinar was studied by autoradiography of orthogradely transported

Fates of visual cortical neurons in the ferret after isochronic and heterochronic transplantation

  • SK McConnell
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1988
The experiments described here constitute an attempt to manipulate the fates of newly generated cortical neurons upon transplantation, with results that suggest the possibility that the commitment of a cell to a particular laminar position and set of connections may occur very early on in cortical development.

Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatto) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2‐ to 6‐month‐old animals,

Laminar Distribution of Isocortical Neurons Projecting to Occipital Grafts in Neonate and Adult Rats

The data show that afferents to physiologically active grafts originate about equally from both supra- and infragranular cortical layers in newborn subjects and that supragranular neurons contribute only 20 and 1.5% of these inputs in P7 and P120 recipients, respectively.

Functional plasticity in the immature striate cortex of the monkey shown by the [14C]deoxyglucose method.

Autoradiographic representation of the local rates of cerebral glucose utilization and local cerebral functional activity by means of the [14C]deoxyglucose technique reveals the existence of the

Genesis of Topographic and Cellular Diversity in the Primate Retina

The retina in the developing macaque monkey is an unexcelled model system for the analysis of cellular events and the mechanisms that govern formation of the human eye, and the hypothesis that, at early developmental stages, intrinsic mechanisms operating within the retina predominate, while at later stages reciprocal interactions with the visual centers refines the numerical cellular relationships and synaptic architecture is supported.



Laminar and columnar distribution of geniculo‐cortical fibers in the macaque monkey

The laminar distribution of axon terminals in the cortex is correlated with functional differences between layers, and the IVth‐layer mosaic anatomically is demonstrated.

Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex

  • P. Rakić
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1972
Golgi and electronmicroscopic methods were used to define the shapes and intercellular relationships of cells migrating from their sites of origin near the ventricular surface across the intermediate

Time of origin of corresponding cell classes in the cerebral cortex of normal and reeler mutant mice: An autoradiographic analysis

Data indicate that the cytoarchitectonic anomaly in reeler is independent of the spatiotemporal program of cell generation, and it appears likely that the reeler genetic locus governs embryonic events that direct the postmitotic migrating young neuron to class‐specific levels within the cortex.

Synaptic patterns in the visual cortex of the cat and monkey. Electron microscopy of Golgi Preparations

  • S. Levay
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1973
Primary visual cortex from macaque monkeys, cats and kittens was stained by a rapid Golgi method modified to give optimal preservation of fine structure and synapses onto impregnated cells were identified by the presynaptic opacities (dense projections), and classified according to the shape and size of the vesicles.

Organization of neurons in the visual cortex, area 17, of the monkey (Macaca mulatta)

  • J. Lund
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1973
A study of neuron morphology in Golgi Rapid and Kopsch preparations of area 17 of the monkey has shown three basic cell groups— pyramidal neurons, stellate neurons with spinous dendrites and stellate

Kinetics of proliferation and latency between final cell division and onset of differentiation of cerebellar stellate and basket neurons

  • P. Rakić
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1973
Thymidine‐3 autoradiographic, Golgi, and electonmicroscopic methods were combined to analyze proliferation kinetics and to determine the interval between final cell division and initial

Short axon neuronal subsystems in the visual cortex of the monkey.

  • F. Valverde
  • Biology
    The International journal of neuroscience
  • 1971
It is suggested that periglomerularStellate cells with ascending axons connect clusters of clewed cells with small, medium and large stellate and pyramidal cells of layers III and IVa, which in turn would activate the giant solitary cells of layer V through synaptic contacts along vertical descending axons.

Cell migrations to the isocortex in the rat

Cells that took up tritiated thymidine (H‐3T) at various periods of intrauterine and early infant life in the periventricular proliferative zone and migrated to form the isocortex in the rat were

The cells of Meynert in the visual cortex of the monkey.

In many lower mammals the cells of Meynert seem hardly to be present in the visual cortex; at least, there are no cells in the infragranular layers which stand out conspicuously by reason of their size, shape and their basal dendritic expansions.

Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex

The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat.