Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia

  title={Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia},
  author={Leigh R. Hochberg and Mijail D. Serruya and Gerhard Friehs and Jon A. Mukand and Maryam Saleh and Abraham H. Caplan and Almut Branner and David Chen and Richard D. Penn and John P. Donoghue},
Neuromotor prostheses (NMPs) aim to replace or restore lost motor functions in paralysed humans by routeing movement-related signals from the brain, around damaged parts of the nervous system, to external effectors. To translate preclinical results from intact animals to a clinically useful NMP, movement signals must persist in cortex after spinal cord injury and be engaged by movement intent when sensory inputs and limb movement are long absent. Furthermore, NMPs would require that intention… 
Restoring cortical control of functional movement in a human with quadriplegia
This is the first demonstration of successful control of muscle activation using intracortically recorded signals in a paralysed human, and has significant implications in advancing neuroprosthetic technology for people worldwide living with the effects of paralysis.
Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia.
The results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis.
Decoding neural activity to predict rat locomotion using intracortical and epidural arrays
It is believed that the accuracy of the decoders in predicting EMGs from multiunit spiking activity is sufficient to drive an FES-BMI for rat walking, and this rat model has further potential as a rehabilitative technology for improving general motor function.
Sensing and decoding the neural drive to paralyzed muscles during attempted movements of a person with tetraplegia using a sleeve array
This study provides the first demonstration of a wearable interface for recording and decoding firing rates of motor neurons below the level of injury in a person with tetraplegia after motor complete SCI.
Computer cursor control by motor cortical signals in humans with tetraplegia
Questions in decoding of neural activity in humans with paralysis are addressed to improve decoding performance, which enables a human with tetraplegia to drive a 2D computer cursor to an arbitrary position and execute a “click” on the area of interest.
Assistive technology and robotic control using motor cortex ensemble‐based neural interface systems in humans with tetraplegia
Recent findings showing, first, that neurons engaged by movement intentions persist in motor cortex years after injury or disease to the motor system, and second, that signals derived from motor cortex can be used by persons with paralysis to operate a range of devices are reviewed.
Neural Decoding for Motor and Communication Prostheses
Neural interfaces for the brain and spinal cord—restoring motor function
It is proposed that several known plasticity mechanisms, operating in a complementary manner, might underlie the therapeutic effects that are achieved by closing the loop between electronic devices and the nervous system.
Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm
The results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.
Toward the Restoration of Hand Use to a Paralyzed Monkey: Brain-Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation of Forearm Muscles
This work is developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex that has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks.


Closed-loop cortical control of direction using support vector machines
This work attempts to examine ensemble activity from motor cortical neurons, not to reproduce the action this neural activity normally precedes, but rather to predict an output supervisory command to potentially control a vehicle.
Motor-cortical activity in tetraplegics
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to study brain activity in subjects with spinal-cord injuries while they are executing, or attempting to execute, movements of different limbs and shows that their motor-cortical activation closely follows normal somatotopic organization in the primary and non-primary sensorimotor areas.
Learning to Control a Brain–Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by Primates
It is demonstrated that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain–machine interface (BMIc) that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters from the electrical activity of frontoparietal neuronal ensembles.
Reliability of signals from a chronically implanted, silicon-based electrode array in non-human primate primary motor cortex
It is demonstrated that neural recordings that can provide movement related signals for neural prostheses, as well as for fundamental research applications, can be reliably obtained for long time periods using a monolithic microelectrode array in primate MI and potentially from other cortical areas as well.
Using human extra-cortical local field potentials to control a switch.
This work describes an almost locked-in human subject with ALS who activated a switch using online time domain detection techniques and Frequency domain analysis of his LFP activity demonstrates this to be an alternative method of detecting switch activation intentions.
Brain-machine interface: Instant neural control of a movement signal
It is shown how activity from a few motor cortex neurons can be decoded into a signal that a monkey is able to use immediately to move a computer cursor to any new position in its workspace.
Cortical neural prosthetics.
Control of prostheses using cortical signals is based on chronic microelectrode arrays, extraction algorithms, and prosthetic effectors and has the capability of restoring much of the arm movement lost with immobilizing deficits.
Restoration of neural output from a paralyzed patient by a direct brain connection
A communication link is described for such a ‘locked-in’ patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that was able to control the neural signals in an on/off fashion and indicates that restoration of paralyzed muscles may be possible by using the signals to control muscle stimulators.
Control of a two-dimensional movement signal by a noninvasive brain-computer interface in humans.
  • J. WolpawD. McFarland
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2004
It is shown that a noninvasive BCI that uses scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity and an adaptive algorithm can provide humans, including people with spinal cord injuries, with multidimensional point-to-point movement control that falls within the range of that reported with invasive methods in monkeys.