Neuronal and astrocytic shuttle mechanisms for cytosolic-mitochondrial transfer of reducing equivalents: current evidence and pharmacological tools.

@article{McKenna2006NeuronalAA,
  title={Neuronal and astrocytic shuttle mechanisms for cytosolic-mitochondrial transfer of reducing equivalents: current evidence and pharmacological tools.},
  author={M. McKenna and H. Waagepetersen and A. Schousboe and U. Sonnewald},
  journal={Biochemical pharmacology},
  year={2006},
  volume={71 4},
  pages={
          399-407
        }
}
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to NADH and NAD+. This transfer of reducing equivalents is essential for maintaining a favorable NAD+/NADH ratio required for the oxidative metabolism of glucose and synthesis of neurotransmitters in brain. There is evidence that both the malate-aspartate shuttle and glycerol phosphate shuttle… Expand
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