D2 dopamine receptors in striatal medium spiny neurons reduce L-type Ca2+ currents and excitability via a novel PLC[beta]1-IP3-calcineurin-signaling cascade.
The intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) displays complex fluctuations in response to a variety of stimuli, and acts as a pluripotent signal for many neuronal functions. It is well established that various 'metabotropic' neurotransmitter receptors can mediate the mobilization of Ca2+ stores via actions of inositol-polyphosphate second messengers, and more recent evidence suggests that 'ionotropic' receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals in neurones might also involve release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. These two mechanisms of release of Ca2+ enable considerable temporal and spatial complexity of increases in the [Ca2+]i via multiple interactions at the level of intracellular-receptor activation. The complexity of Ca2+ signalling that is elicited via these interconnecting pathways might underlie mechanisms that are central to information transfer and integration within neuronal compartments.