Neuromyelitis optica lesions may inform multiple sclerosis heterogeneity debate

@article{Brck2012NeuromyelitisOL,
  title={Neuromyelitis optica lesions may inform multiple sclerosis heterogeneity debate},
  author={Wolfgang Br{\"u}ck and Bogdan F Popescu and Claudia F. Lucchinetti and Silva Markovic‐Plese and Ralf Gold and Dietmar Rudolf Thal and Imke Metz},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  year={2012},
  volume={72}
}
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are considered inflammatory demyelinating diseases with distinguishing pathological characteristics. NMO pathology shows perivascular immunoglobulin G and complement deposition, as well as an astrocytopathy with aquaporin‐4 (AQP4) loss. MS lesions reveal a profound, interindividual heterogeneity in immunopathological patterns of active demyelination, which has been challenged by the description of stage‐dependent sequences of pathological… 
Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome).
The Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica
  • M. Kowarik, J. Soltys, J. Bennett
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • 2014
TLDR
The goal of this review is to familiarize the reader with biologic and clinical data supporting current treatments in NMO and highlight future strategies based on advancements in understanding of NMO pathogenesis.
The Pathology of an Autoimmune Astrocytopathy: Lessons Learned from Neuromyelitis Optica
TLDR
Neuromyelitis optica is a disabling autoimmune astrocytopathy characterized by typically severe and recurrent attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive myelitis and recent neuropathological studies provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms, cellular targets, as well as the spectrum of tissue damage in NMO.
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody‐related disseminated encephalomyelitis
TLDR
Two distinct diseases are focused on, aquaporin 4 antibody‐related NMOSD and MOG antibody-related diseases, both of which were recently differentiated from MS by means of the disease‐specific autoantibodies and the distinct pathophysiologies.
Presence of six different lesion types suggests diverse mechanisms of tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica
TLDR
It is shown that active lesions in NMO display a wide spectrum of pathology even within a single tissue block of an individual patient, and that different mechanisms of tissue injury operate in parallel in the same patient and even within the same lesion.
Neuromyelitis Optica: Deciphering a Complex Immune-Mediated Astrocytopathy.
  • J. Bennett, G. Owens
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • 2017
TLDR
Progress in the field toward answering fundamental questions about disease mechanisms in NMO is assessed and how information from the bench is leading to the generation of novel therapeutic strategies at the bedside is examined.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of Multiple Sclerosis Immunopathological Patterns
TLDR
Robust evidence is provided that MRI characteristics reflect specific morphological features of MS immunopatterns and that ring-like enhancement and T2w hypointense rims might serve as a valuable non-invasive biomarker to differentiate pathological patterns of demyelination.
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Treatment—Current and Future Prospects
TLDR
Currently available therapeutic strategies for NMO as well as ongoing research in this field are presented, with reference to key points of immune-mediated processes involved in the background of the disease.
Early and extensive spinal white matter involvement in neuromyelitis optica
TLDR
This work aimed to clarify spinal white matter pathology of LESCLs in NMO, and focused on gray matter, where the relevant antigen, aquaporin‐4 (AQP4), is abundant.
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