Neuromuscular mechanism of sound production in Australian cicadas

@article{Young2004NeuromuscularMO,
  title={Neuromuscular mechanism of sound production in Australian cicadas},
  author={David C. Young},
  journal={Journal of comparative physiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={79},
  pages={343-362}
}
  • D. Young
  • Published 1 December 1972
  • Biology
  • Journal of comparative physiology
SummaryThe way in which the tymbals, the tymbal muscles and their nerves function together to produce the natural song patterns, has been studied in four species of Australian cicadas.1.Cystosoma saundersii Westw., a most unusual cicada, has neurogenic tymbal muscles, which contract simultaneously (Figs. 2, 3a, 4a), giving a pulse repetition frequency (p.r.f.) of only 40/sec. The greatly enlarged abdomen (Kg. 9) acts as a resonant chamber at the low sound frequency (850 Hz) of the natural song… 
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The durations of isometric twitches are strongly correlated with the inferred cycle period (= reciprocal of contraction frequency) in a total of eleven species with synchronous tymbal muscles, giving all-or-nothing twitches with a single, sharp threshold.
Structure and function of the auditory system of the cicada,Cystosoma saundersii
TLDR
It is concluded that the auditory system of C. saundersii is finely adapted to the requirements of intraspecific acoustic communication with low frequency sound.
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  • A. V. Popov
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
TLDR
The spontaneous song of Cicadetta sinuatipennis males consists of alternating tymbal sound production and wing-clicking and it is suggested that wing sounds are used for long-range communication between males and females.
Pure-tone songs in cicadas with special reference to the genusMagicicada
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It is suggested that pure-tone songs in cicadas are made possible by a reduction in the stiffness of the tymbal, which permits the precise time of buckling of each rib to be influenced by the phase of oscillation in the abdominal resonator, thereby creating a coherent and continuous train of sound waves.
The Tymbal: Evolution of a Complex Vibration-Producing Organ in the Tymbalia (Hemiptera excl. Sternorrhyncha)
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Sound radiation in a cicada: the role of different structures
Sound radiation was studied in males of Tympanistalna gastrica St»l during a spontaneous song with the characteristics of the conspecific calling song, which was elicited as an after effect of brain
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TLDR
Design features, especially the matching hexagonal symmetry of the myofilaments and the perforated Z‐band that contribute to high‐speed contractions, long endurance, and potentially supercontraction needed for producing enduring mating songs and choruses are illustrated.
Power and control muscles of cicada song: structural and contractile heterogeneity
TLDR
Muscle ultrastructure and contractile properties were characterized for the tymbal muscle and two control muscles, the ventral longitudinal muscle and the tyMBal tensor, of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim.
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References

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1. The neuromuscular mechanism of sound-production in cicadas has been elucidated by a detailed anatomical and physiological study of Platypleura capitata (Oliv.) and by the analysis of magnetic tape
Sound Production in a Brazilian Cicada
TLDR
It is concluded that the abdominal air sac does not act as a resonant chamber in the Brazilian cicada Fidicana rana Walker, and the physical properties of the system necessary to produce this directionality are discussed.
HIGH FREQUENCY MUSCLES USED IN SOUND PRODUCTION BY A KATYDID. I. ORGANIZATION OF THE MOTOR SYSTEM
TLDR
Muscle activity patterns during singing indicate that the motor output results from an endogenous pacemaker which fires at the singing frequency, and probably at least three neuronal elements in series between the pacemaker and the forewing muscles.
Periodical Cicada: Mechanism of Sound Production
TLDR
The species Magicicada septendecim andMagicicada cassini of the 17-year cicada produce sound by sequentially buckling a series of stiff ribs embedded in a flexible tymbal, which permits a normal muscle to perform a task requiring very rapid repetitive activity.
BODY TEMPERATURE AND SINGING IN THE KATYDID, NEOCONOCEPHALUS ROBUSTUS (ORTHOPTERA, TETTIGONIIDAE)
TLDR
The katydid, Neoconocephalus robustus, produces a continuous song by rubbing its forewings together at frequencies of 150-200 per second, the temperature gradient being greater the lower the ambient temperature.
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TLDR
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JUST ten years ago, Prof. Frederick McCoy decided, under instructions from the Victorian Government of the day, to commence the publication of a series of short descriptions, accompanied by coloured
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1. Some of the properties of glycerinated fibres from the synchronous tymbal muscles of the cicada Fidicina rana have been investigated.
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