Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

@article{Lake1992NeuromuscularES,
  title={Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation},
  author={David Allen Lake},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={1992},
  volume={13},
  pages={320-336}
}
  • D. Lake
  • Published 1 May 1992
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Sports Medicine
SummaryIn sports medicine, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used for muscle strengthening, maintenance of muscle mass and strength during prolonged periods of immobilisation, selective muscle retraining, and the control of oedema. A wide variety of stimulators, including the burst-modulated alternating current (‘Russian stimulator’), twin-spiked monophasic pulsed current and biphasic pulsed current stimulators, have been used to produce these effects.Several investigators… 

Is high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation a suitable tool for muscle performance improvement in both healthy humans and athletes?

Overall, NMES cannot be considered as a surrogate training method, but rather as an adjunct to voluntary resistance training, and the combination of these two training modalities should optimally improve muscle function.

Neuromuscular activation strategies of voluntary andelectrically elicited muscle fatigue: Underlying mechanisms and clinicalimplications

It was found that even though strength and time to task failure were similar in both groups, the children with CP exhibited a lower increase in EMG (electromyographic) amplitude compared to typically developing peers, suggesting that the children were not able to recruit additional motor units to compensate for muscle fatigue during a sustained low-force level isometric elbow flexion contraction.

Electrical stimulation and neuromuscular fatigue in healthy and chronic post-stroke populations

Three different variable stimulation patterns were investigated and the effects at submaximal as well as supramaximal intensities were compared and the doublet pattern showed a significantly higher FTI than the other two patterns.

Evaluation of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on fibre characteristics and oxidative capacity in equine skeletal muscles.

TheNMES treatment was well tolerated by the horses, but the present protocol did not induce significant muscle adaptations, and further studies are needed to describe the effect of more intense and/or prolonged NMES treatment protocols on muscles of healthy horses.

Neuromuscular or Sensory Electrical Stimulation for Reconditioning Motor Output and Postural Balance in Older Subjects?

SES is interesting for the improvement/maintenance of sensorimotor capabilities in non-frail older subjects while NMES is relevant to develop muscle strength/power and thus reduce the risk of falls due to a lack of muscle strength-power in frail older subjects.

Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Submental Muscle Activity

Results indicated that seven of eight subjects exhibited no significant gains in myoelectric activity of the submental muscles following NMES, and the benefit of NMES to the sub mental muscles with the goal of improving the pharyngeal swallow is not supported.

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training induces atypical adaptations of the human skeletal muscle phenotype: a functional and proteomic analysis.

Adaptations in the protein pattern of the ACT and SED groups were different but were, in both groups, typical of both resistance and endurance training, and can be ascribed to the peculiar motor unit recruitment pattern associated with NMES.

Physiological adaptations following vigorous exercise and moderate exercise with superimposed electrical stimulation.

The results suggest that both superimposing subtetanic NMES onto moderate-intensity voluntary exercise and vigorous voluntary intensity exercise induce the improvement in cardiovascular and metabolic systems, but the adaptation of former method is provided without perceived strenuous exertion.
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References

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Comparison of the effects of electrical stimulation and exercise on abdominal musculature.

It was concluded that combined exercise and stimulation may prove to be the most effective method of improving abdominal strength.

Strengthening of human quadriceps muscles by cutaneous electrical stimulation.

It is concluded that cutaneous electrical stimulation is a viable strengthening technique and there are obvious practical applications of this technique to the rehabilitation of patients who are not able to maintain an effective voluntary contraction.

Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation.

Two distinctly different theories of strength augmentation using percutaneous muscle stimulation are presented and both are partially substantiated using published literature.

Training effects of sub-maximal electrostimulation in a human muscle.

It is indicated that electrostimulation augments the muscle force of contraction by changing peripheral processes associated with intra-cellular events, without modifying the nervous command of the contraction.

Effect of electrical stimulation on human skeletal muscle.

The acute and adaptive effects of electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle were investigated in healthy male volunteers and appeared more "position-specific and less "speed-specific" than those of voluntary training with slow isokinetic contractions.

Changes in quadriceps femoris muscle strength using isometric exercise versus electrical stimulation.

Reports in the literature appear to support the effectiveness of electrical stimulation as a means of increasing strength in normal muscles, and ANOVA revealed significant strength increases for both the electrical stimulation and isometric exercise groups.

Effect of motor neuromuscular electrical stimulation on microvascular perfusion of stimulated rat skeletal muscle.

The results indicate that motor NMES significantly increases the degree of microvascular perfusion in stimulated rat skeletal muscle and that the increased degree of perfusion persists for various lengths of time, depending on the fiber-type composition of the muscle.

Augmenting voluntary torque of healthy muscle by optimization of electrical stimulation.

Electrical stimulation, when used with the specified low-dosage training characteristics of this study, will augment quadriceps femoris muscle torque of men.

Strength changes in the normal quadriceps femoris muscle as a result of electrical stimulation.

The data supported the use of the electrical-stimulation and isometric-exercise groups had statistically significant increases in quadriceps femoris muscle torque when compared with the nonexercise controls.

The effect of muscle stimulation during resistive training on performance parameters

Both experimental groups improved significantly for all measures, but the electrical stimulation group did not produce more significant changes overall than those with resistive training alone.
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