Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part I: the methodology and implementation

  title={Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part I: the methodology and implementation},
  author={Chuanxin Minos Niu and Kian Jalaleddini and Won Joon Sohn and John Rocamora and Terence D. Sanger and Francisco J. Valero-Cuevas},
  journal={Journal of Neural Engineering},
Objective: One goal of neuromorphic engineering is to create ‘realistic’ robotic systems that interact with the physical world by adopting neuromechanical principles from biology. Critical to this is the methodology to implement the spinal circuitry responsible for the behavior of afferented muscles. At its core, muscle afferentation is the closed-loop behavior arising from the interactions among populations of muscle spindle afferents, alpha and gamma motoneurons, and muscle fibers to enable… 

Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

It is demonstrated that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function, and the Neuro–mechano–morphic system is a working prototype of a robust biomorphic controller for compliant robotic limbs and exoskeletons.

Proprioceptive Feedback through a Neuromorphic Muscle Spindle Model

This model provides a completely spike-based building block, suitable for neuromorphic platforms, that will enable the development of sensory-motor closed loops which could include neural simulations of areas of the central nervous system or of low-level reflexes.

Neuromorphic Model of Reflex for Realtime Human-Like Compliant Control of Prosthetic Hand

Overall, the reflex-enabled prosthetic hand demonstrated the attributes of human compliant grasping with the neuromorphic model of spinal neuromuscular reflex.

Effects of Muscle Properties and Motor-Unit Differentiation on Virtual Reflex for Biomimetic Prosthetic Hand

This study is the first step towards constructing a complete “virtual reflex” to be integrated in a biomimetic controller for prosthetic hands by refining the force-length property of the muscle model.

A Survey of Neuromorphic Computing and Neural Networks in Hardware

An exhaustive review of the research conducted in neuromorphic computing since the inception of the term is provided to motivate further work by illuminating gaps in the field where new research is needed.

On neuromechanical approaches for the study of biological and robotic grasp and manipulation

A frank and open-minded assessment of the state-of-the-art in neuromechanics, neuroscience, rehabilitation and robotics is presented, which emphasizes that real-world behavior emerges from the intimate interactions among the physical structure of the system, the mechanical requirements of a task, the feasible neural control actions to produce it, and the ability of the neuromuscular system to adapt through interactions with the environment.

Integrating Non-spiking Interneurons in Spiking Neural Networks

This paper proposes sub-threshold operation of an existing spiking neuron model to create a non-spiking neuron able to interpret analog information and communicate with spiking neurons, and proposes and confirms the validity of this methodology through a simulation of a closed-loop amplitude regulating network.

Nonlinear Frequency-Domain Analysis of the Transformation of Cortical Inputs by a Motoneuron Pool-Muscle Complex

A frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by the means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF) suggests a manner by which brain rhythms descending as command signals to the spinal cord and acting on a motoneuron pool can regulate a maintained muscle force.

Design of a Biomimetic Control System for Tendon-driven Prosthetic Hand

The design and implementation of a biomimetic control system, which aims for duplicating physiologically realistic behavior of human motor control in a tendon-driven prosthetic hand, are presented and participants could establish expected force using the biomimetically control system.

Autonomous Functional Locomotion in a Tendon-Driven Limb via Limited Experience

This work demonstrates---for the first time in simulation and in hardware---how a model-free approach allows few-shot autonomous learning to produce effective locomotion in a 3-tendon/2-joint tendon-driven leg, and enables versatile adaptation of robots to changes in the target task, mechanics of their bodies, and environment.



Emulated muscle spindle and spiking afferents validates VLSI neuromorphic hardware as a testbed for sensorimotor function and disease

This is the first hardware emulation of the spindle afferent system, and it may have application not only for emulation of human health and disease, but also for the construction of compliant neuromorphic robotic systems.

Fundamentals of Neuromechanics

This book provides a conceptual and computational framework to study how the nervous system exploits the anatomical properties of limbs to produce mechanical function by combining fundamental concepts from mechanics, anatomy, mathematics, robotics and neuroscience with advances in the field of computational geometry.

Modeling and Identification of a Realistic Spiking Neural Network and Musculoskeletal Model of the Human Arm, and an Application to the Stretch Reflex

This study develops a multi-level neuromuscular model consisting of topological pools of spiking motor, sensory and interneurons controlling a bi-muscular model of the human arm that was used to simulate the biceps stretch reflex and the results were compared to an independent dataset.

Spinal-Like Regulator Facilitates Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Wrist

The general hypothesis is that, despite its complexity, such regulatory circuitry substantially simplifies the tasks of learning and producing complex movements.

Mathematical models of proprioceptors. I. Control and transduction in the muscle spindle.

A physiologically realistic model of a lower-limb, mammalian muscle spindle composed of mathematical elements closely related to the anatomical components found in the biological spindle is constructed and validated against data that originated from the cat's medial gastrocnemius muscle.

Spinal Mechanisms May Provide a Combination of Intermittent and Continuous Control of Human Posture: Predictions from a Biologically Based Neuromusculoskeletal Model

Results suggest that the spinal cord anatomy and neurophysiology, along with the modulation of afferent activity, may account for the mixture of intermittent and continuous control that has been a subject of debate in recent studies on postural control.

Muscle and tendon: properties, models, scaling, and application to biomechanics and motor control.

  • F. Zajac
  • Biology, Engineering
    Critical reviews in biomedical engineering
  • 1989
Their integrated ability to generate force statically and dynamically is studied by formulating a generic model of the "musculotendon actuator", which has only one parameter, the ratio of tendon length at rest to muscle fiberlength at rest.

Multi-scale Hyper-time Hardware Emulation of Human Motor Nervous System Based on Spiking Neurons using FPGA

A platform with digital VLSI hardware for multi-scale hyper-time emulations of human motor nervous systems and the rationale of approximating neural circuitry by organizing neurons with sparse interconnections is discussed.

Motor Neuron Pools of Synergistic Thigh Muscles Share Most of Their Synaptic Input

The results showed that the majority of neural drive to the vasti muscles was a cross-muscle drive characterized by a force-dependent strength and bandwidth, which supports the notion that synergistically activated muscles share most of their neural drive.

Mathematical models of proprioceptors. II. Structure and function of the Golgi tendon organ.

A physiologically realistic mathematical model of the Golgi tendon organ whose elements correspond to anatomical features of the biological receptor is developed, consistent with the anatomy of the afferent innervation and its arrangement with respect to the collagen strands inserting into the GTO.