In the present study, we hypothesized that thymosin beta 4 (Tbeta4) is a potential therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To test this hypothesis, SJL/J mice (n=21) were subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. EAE mice were treated with saline or Tbeta4 (6 mg/kg, n=10) every 3 days starting on the day of myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) immunization for total five doses. Neurological function, inflammatory infiltration, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes were measured in the brain of EAE mice. Double immunohistochemical staining was used to detect proliferation and differentiation of OPCs. Tbeta4 was used to treat N20.1 cells (premature oligodendrocyte cell line) in vitro, and proliferation of N20.1 cells was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Tbeta4 treatment group compared to the saline groups (3.6+/-0.3/slide vs 5+/-0.5/slide, P<0.05). NG2(+) OPCs (447.7+/-41.9 vs 195.2+/-31/mm(2) in subventricular zone (SVZ), 75.1+/-4.7 vs 41.7+/-3.2/mm(2) in white matter), CNPase(+) mature oligodendrocytes (267.5+/-10.3 vs 141.4+/-22.9/mm(2)), BrdU(+) with NG2(+) OPCs (32.9+/-3.7 vs 17.9+/-3.6/mm(2)), BrdU(+) with CNPase(+) mature oligodendrocytes (18.2+/-1.7 vs 10.7+/-2.2/mm(2)) were significantly increased in the Tbeta4 treated mice compared to those of saline controls (P<0.05). These data indicate that Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis.