Neurological manifestations of HIV infection are frequent and diverse. Diagnosis is often difficult due to geographical factors. 686 of the 3409 patients admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Bobo-Dioulasso in 1995-1996 were HIV seropositive. This represents a prevalence of 20.1%. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 101 patients with neurological problems during the study period are reported in this paper. This case series represents 14% of the HIV-positive admissions. The mean age was 35.7 years and 43% of the cases were aged 30 to 40 years. Sex-ratio was 1.6 male for 1 female. Focal deficits were observed in 36 of cases. Peripheral neuropathy (37%), meningitis or meningoencephalitis (20%), fitting (8%) and myelitis (8%) were the other clinical presentations. The etiology of the focal deficits was not ascertained because of the lack of tomodensitometry, specific serology and necropsy. Any neurological manifestation in a HIV seropositive patient should prompt investigations in order to diagnose those infections which can be treated, especially Toxoplasma gondii abscess and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.